Past studies of Oceanic masculinities have tended to see masculinity in the singular, through the lens of unchanging cultural traditions, wherein types of men were iconic of cultural differences. This special issue considers masculinities in the plural, both within and between cultures, exploring the relations between hegemonic and subordinate masculinities and how masculinities are configured in the context of colonial histories, militarism, and globalization. It connects a historical and relational approach to masculinities to embodied experience and individual and collective memories across the diversity of Oceania.
Surfing -- Social aspects -- Hawaii -- History -- 20th century.
Masculinity -- Hawaii -- History -- 20th century.
Culture and tourism -- Hawaii -- History -- 20th century.
Hawaii -- Ethnic relations -- History -- 20th century.
In this article I argue that the Hawaiian conceptual, cultural, and physical space called po'ina nalu (surf zone) was a borderland (or boarder-land) where colonial hegemony was less effectual and Hawaiian resistance continuous. Through the history of Hawaiian surfing clubs, specifically the Hui Nalu and the Waikïkï beachboys, Hawaiian male surfers both subverted colonial discourses—discourses that represented most Hawaiian men as passive, unmanly, and nearly invisible—and confronted political haole (white) elites who overthrew Hawai'i's Native government in the late 1800s. My ultimate conclusion is that the ocean surf was a place where Hawaiian men negotiated masculine identities and successfully resisted colonialism.
This article is underpinned by the simple question of what knowledge is produced about Mäori men and why. In particular, it deconstructs the invention, authentication, and re-authentication of "traditional" Mäori patriarchy. It begins by examining how Mäori patriarchy was invented and authenticated through the hybridization of Mäori and British masculine cultures, especially through the early colonial education of a select few Mäori boys, who were subjects of a British public schooling technique. The article draws from this historical analysis to demonstrate how Mäori patriarchy continues to be authenticated in today's popular culture. Here, the contemporary re-authentication of Mäori patriarchy is drawn attention to through a deconstruction of the film Whale Rider. This film analysis argues that Whale Rider deploys a dangerous conflation of representation and reality, which ultimately re-authenticates the invented tradition of Mäori patriarchy. The article is less concerned with denouncing particular tropes of Mäori men as "false" and more with how such "truths" have come to be privileged; it also seeks to uncloak the processes that produce Mäori masculine subjectivities.
Male to female cross-dressing and performing have a long indigenous history in the Cook Islands. In recent years, Western-style drag shows have also been included in the Cook Islands cross-dressing repertoire. This article takes the highly cosmopolitan vehicle of the drag show and uses it to track the relationship between local and global models of gender and sexuality. It examines ways in which the iconography of domesticity and motherhood has been used to signify an uneasy relationship between local and global ideas of sexuality and gender.