The Contemporary Pacific

The Contemporary Pacific 13.1, Spring 2001

Contents

The Pacific Islands

Articles

    Goddard, Michael.
  • From Rolling Thunder to Reggae: Imagining Squatter Settlements in Papua New Guinea
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    Subject Headings:
    • Squatter settlements -- Papua New Guinea -- Port Moresby -- History.
    • Squatters -- Papua New Guinea -- Port Moresby -- History.
    Abstract:
      As Papua New Guinea's well-publicized "law and order" problem continues unabated, calls are often made for the destruction of squatter settlements and the dispersal of their inhabitants as a solution to urban crime. This article examines the popular imagery of urban "squatter settlements" in Papua New Guinea, which represents them as criminogenic habitats of unemployed and impoverished migrants. The imagery is generally as misleading as that of squatter and shanty environments elsewhere in the third world--a topic that is familiar in critical academic literature. But it is argued here that the shared imagery cannot be submitted to an analysis that simply draws on political-economic generalizations about housing and marginalization in "developing" nations. The notion of squatter settlements in the independent nation of Papua New Guinea has a specific origin in the imagination and attitudes of Europeans in the preceding colonial period. The historical transformations through which the imagery has been perpetuated are examined to understand how present-day urban Papua New Guineans can continue to demonize settlements in the face of lived experience that contradicts this censorious discourse.
    Keywords:
      crime, housing, poverty, squatter settlements, urbanization
    Hyndman, David.
  • Academic Responsibilities and Representation of the Ok Tedi Crisis in Postcolonial Papua New Guinea
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mines and mineral resources -- Papua New Guinea.
    • Political ecology -- Papua New Guinea.
    • Ok (Papua New Guinea people) -- Politics and government -- 20th century.
    • Anthropological ethics -- Papua New Guinea.
    Abstract:
      Since the start of the Ok Tedi mining project in Papua New Guinea in 1981, Broken Hill Proprietary has operated it. Weak environmental protection laws and a series of ecological disasters have endangered the greater Ok Tedi and Fly River socioecological region. A grassroots indigenous popular ecological resistance movement made an out-of-court settlement with the mining company in Melbourne in 1996. Early in 2000 the indigenous movement took Broken Hill Proprietary back to court in Melbourne to block the company's attempt to abandon the Ok Tedi mine. Research started with Wopkaimin subsistence ecology in the 1970s. Later the political ecology of the Ok Tedi crisis was evaluated, as was ecological change in social terms; both are illustrated through the politics of cultural and ecological representation. After the successful convergence of radical environmentalists and indigenous popular ecological resistance against the Ok Tedi mine, research shifted to liberation ecology to study the emancipatory potential of struggles and conflicts against environmental degradation. The responsibilities of academics conducting research in the Ok Tedi crisis are examined. The Ok Tedi crisis challenges the proposition that academics can act as honest brokers through mining companies to negotiate deals for local communities. Academics engaged by mining companies as consultants or employees must work according to managed science and circumscribed briefs. The approach of critical liberation ecology, which directs research to community empowerment, represents a freedom of critical inquiry only available in the academy.
    Keywords:
      ecology, liberation ecology, mining, Ok Tedi, Papua New Guinea, political ecology, research conduct
    Gegeo, David Welchman.
    Watson-Gegeo, Karen Ann, 1942-
  • "How We Know": Kwara'ae Rural Villagers Doing Indigenous Epistemology
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    Subject Headings:
    • Social epistemology -- Solomon Islands -- Malaita.
    • Ethnophilosophy -- Solomon Islands -- Malaita.
    • Kwara'ae (Solomon Islands people)
    Abstract:
      We examine Kwara'ae (Solomon Islands) indigenous epistemology and indigenous critical praxis, including sources of knowledge and strategies for validating and critiquing evidence and knowledge construction. To illustrate indigenous epistemology in action, we focus on the Kwara'ae Genealogy Project, a research effort by rural villagers aimed at creating an indigenous written account of Kwara'ae culture. In recording, (re)constructing, and writing Kwara'ae culture, project members are not only doing indigenous epistemology, but also reflecting on and critiquing their own indigenous strategies for knowledge creation. We hope that the work illustrated here will inspire other Native Pacific Islander scholars to carry out research on their native or indigenous epistemologies.
    Keywords:
      indigenous epistemology, indigenous critical praxis, Kwara'ae, Solomon Islands, villagers conducting research
    Hess, Jim.
    Nero, Karen L.
    Burton, Michael L.
  • Creating Options: Forming a Marshallese Community in Orange County, California
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    Subject Headings:
    • Marshall Islands -- Emigration and immigration.
    • Orange County (Calif.) -- Emigration and immigration.
    • Micronesians -- California -- Orange County.
    Abstract:
      Founded by individuals pursuing higher education in the United States, the Marshallese community in Orange County today also represents family and national interests in access to business opportunities, employment, education, medical services, and other goals. This community has become an "official" Marshallese overseas community, site of the first Marshallese consulate in the mainland United States, and a link between overseas Marshallese and the home islands. Individuals and family units traverse networks of inter-linked households, highlighting processes of Islanders' investments, including at least a short-term reversal of theoretically expected remittance flows. We explore the process of community formation, and compare rural and urban sites in the Marshall Islands to call attention to the community's place in a system of geographically dispersed locations within the global political economy.
    Keywords:
      community formation, exchange relationships, family relationships, Marshall Islanders, migrant communities, migration decisions, Orange County

Dialogue

    Meyer, Manu Aluli.
  • Our Own Liberation: Reflections on Hawaiian Epistemology
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    Subject Headings:
    • Social epistemology -- Hawaii.
    • Ethnophilosophy -- Hawaii.
    • Hawaiians.
    Abstract:
      As the Hawaiian political and cultural movement continues to grow, issues of representation, power, and control are being critiqued--now by Hawaiian minds. In this essay I look at the fundamentals of Hawaiian epistemology and begin to link them with the educational reform now underway in Hawai'i. With the guidance of twenty mentors, I outline seven epistemological categories that begin to solidify a distinct way in which to view teaching, learning, intellect, and rigor. These categories, now struggling to be useful in the Hawaiian Charter School movement, will inevitably also serve as a way to critique the current colonial system in Hawaiian language immersion, spotlight the oppression embedded in well-meant content and performance standards, and highlight the hidden curriculum of assimilation and the acultural assumptions in pedagogy that exist in Hawai'i's colonial schools. This outline of a Hawaiian philosophy of knowledge expands, invigorates, and redefines ideas of empiricism, intellectual rigor, and knowledge priorities--all through Hawaiian ontological lenses. Like any definition of culture put forth by indigenous practitioners and scholars, it pushes the envelope of what it means to think, exist, and struggle as a nonmainstream "other," and as it details the liberation found in identity, it must also, inevitably, outline the systems that deter its full blossoming.
    Keywords:
      culture, empiricism, epistemology, Hawaiian, intellectual, ontology, philosophy
    Gegeo, David Welchman.
  • (Re)visioning Knowledge Transformation in the Pacific: A Response to Subramani's "The Oceanic Imaginary"
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    Subject Headings:
    • Subramani. Oceanic imaginary.
    • Social epistemology -- Oceania.

Political Reviews

Micronesia in Review: Issues and Events, 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2000

Polynesia in Review: Issues and Events, 1 July 1999 to 30 June 200

Book and Media Reviews

    Smith, Michael French.
  • Emerging Class in Papua New Guinea: The Telling of Difference (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gewertz, Deborah B., 1948- Emerging class in Papua New Guinea: the telling of difference.
    • Errington, Frederick Karl.
    • Social classes -- Papua New Guinea -- Wewak.
    Zimmer-Tamakoshi, Laura, 1944-
  • Emerging Class in Papua New Guinea: The Telling of Difference (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gewertz, Deborah B., 1948- Emerging class in Papua New Guinea: the telling of difference.
    • Errington, Frederick Karl.
    • Social classes -- Papua New Guinea -- Wewak.
    MacWilliam, Scott.
  • Emerging Class in Papua New Guinea: The Telling of Difference (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gewertz, Deborah B., 1948- Emerging class in Papua New Guinea: the telling of difference.
    • Errington, Frederick Karl.
    • Social classes -- Papua New Guinea -- Wewak.
    Gewertz, Deborah B., 1948-
    Errington, Frederick Karl.
  • The Telling of Class in Papua New Guinea
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    Subject Headings:
    • Smith, Michael French.
    • Zimmer-Tamakoshi, Laura, 1944-
    • MacWilliam, Scott.
    • Social classes -- Papua New Guinea -- Wewak.
    Banks, Glenn.
  • Getting Under the Skin: The Bougainville Copper Agreement and the Creation of the Panguna Mine (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dennon, Donald. Getting under the skin: the Bougainville copper agreement and the creation of the Panguna Mine.
    • Copper mines and mining -- Papua New Guinea -- Bougainville Island.
    Macdonald, Barrie.
  • Australia and the Pacific Islands in the Twentieth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Thompson, Roger C., 1941- Australia and the Pacific Islands in the twentieth century.
    • Australia -- Politics and government -- 20th century.
    Burt, Ben.
  • Strategies for Sustainable Development: Experiences from the Pacific, and: Pacific Development Sustained: Policy for Pacific Environments (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Overton, John (John D.), ed. Strategies for sustainable development: experiences from the Pacific.
    • Scheyvens, Regina, ed.
    • Campbell-Hunt, Colin. Pacific development sustained: policy for Pacific environments.
    • Sustainable development -- Oceania.
    • Economic development -- Environmental aspects -- Oceania.
    Rubinstein, Donald H., 1948-
  • Adolescence in Pacific Island Societies (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Herdt, Gilbert H., 1949-, ed. Adolescence in Pacific Island societies.
    • Leavitt, Stephen C., 1959-, ed.
    • Adolescence -- Oceania -- Cross-cultural studies.
    LiPuma, Edward, 1951-
  • From Primitive to Postcolonial in Melanesia and Anthropology (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Knauft, Bruce M. From primitive to postcolonial in Melanesia and anthropology.
    • Ethnology -- Melanesia.
    Wu, David Y. H.
  • Nanshin: Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea, 1890-1949 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Iwamoto, Hiromitsu. Nanshin: Japanese settlers in Papua and New Guinea, 1890-1949.
    • Japan -- Emigration and immigration.
    MacDonald, Mary N., 1946-
  • Charles Abel and the Kwato Mission of Papua New Guinea, 1891-1975 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wetherell, David. Charles Abel and the Kwato Mission of Papua New Guinea, 1891-1975.
    • Abel, Charles W. (Charles William), 1863-1930.
    Hoorn, Jeanette.
  • Double Vision: Art Histories and Colonial Histories in the Pacific (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Thomas, Nicholas, ed. Double vision: art histories and colonial histories in the Pacific.
    • Losche, Diane, ed.
    • Art -- Pacific Area.
    Young, Kanalu G. Terry, 1954-
  • Turning Tide: The Ebb and Flow of Hawaiian Nationality (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schweizer, Niklaus R. (Niklaus Rudolf), 1939- Turning tide: the ebb and flow of Hawaiian nationality.
    • Hawaii -- Politics and government.
    Hanlon, David L.
  • Pana O'ahu: Sacred Stones, Sacred Land (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Becket, Jan, ed. Pana O'ahu: Sacred stones, sacred land.
    • Singer, Joseph, ed.
    • Hawaiians -- Antiquities.
    Lyons, Paul.
  • Bad Colonists: The South Seas Letters of Vernon Lee Walker and Louis Becke (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Walker, Vernon Lee. Bad colonists: the South Seas letters of Vernon Lee Walker and Louis Becke.
    • Becke, Louis, 1855-1913.
    • Thomas, Nicholas.
    • Eves, Richard.
    • Oceania -- History -- Sources.
    Goldsmith, Michael, 1949-
    Barber, Keith.
  • Vot Long Pati Ia! (Your vote, our party) (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dorras, Jo. Vot long pati ia! [video]
    • Wan Smolbag Theatre.
    • Political corruption -- Melanesia -- Drama.



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