Eteocles displays outstanding moral awareness for a tragic hero. He enters the Seven innocent of wrongdoing against father or brother. His religious understanding is extraordinary in the shield scene, and he rightly accepts the inevitable fratricide, choosing the ethic of the warrior and city-defender. He concedes that he is inspired by a Fury-driven battle lust, which is more amor fati than fraternal hatred. Though "free will" is strictly an anachronism, he and the chorus assume throughout that he possesses sufficient autonomy to decide and act, even if this restricts him to accepting stoically the inevitable.
The paper examines closely the last four lines (25–28) of Horace Carm. 4.7. Initial discussion centers on the connection between Horace's stanza and the simile at Aeneid 11.492–497 as well as on the latter's sources in Ennius and Homer. The paper turns to the irony in Horace's nomenclature—we find, for instance a Hippolytus who is confined rather than serving as a releaser—and then to the differences between Horace's treatment of Aeneas, Theseus, and Hippolytus and that of Vergil. Finally it looks at meter as metaphor, and asks why Horace used the second Archilochian, which combines epic and elegiac elements, only here.
This article, which examines all the available evidence for Hannibal's use of elephants in the Second Punic War, refutes the contention that Hannibal was especially innovative in his tactical use of the beasts. In addition, greater reliance on elephants in Italy, particularly after his success at the Trebia, would have hindered Hannibal in his lengthy campaign against Rome. The article also contends that Hannibal's use of massed elephants at Zama highlights the degree to which he was accustomed to take chances in the field, especially given his demonstrable familiarity with the fickle nature of elephants when used for military purposes.
The idea of a heritage from ancient Rome, or romanità, was central to Italian Fascism. This article analyzes Il Duce Mussolini's discourse on romanità in the forty-four volumes of his Opera Omnia, focusing on key themes such as empire, historical characters, and the grandeur of archaeological remains. It links Mussolini's discourse of romanità to his discourse on the future and to the idea of Fascism as a political religion. It shows that Mussolini's historical knowledge was largely overstated and that it was mainly the omnipresence of romanità, rather than its specific features, which can be defined as central to this notion.
A course dedicated to the figure of Alexander is the most traditional type of history. But must such a course necessarily be "great man history"—that is, the kind of old-fashioned history that focuses on the thoughts, feelings, motives, and intentions of a single individual who "makes" history? This paper will suggest ways in which one can teach a course on Alexander that also looks at broader issues, such as ethnicity, ideology, the economic, political, and social impact of the conquest on the peoples of Greece and Asia, and the literary analysis (as opposed to source criticism) of our extant authorities.
This paper examines the Greek Alexander Romance from the point of view of narratology, looking at the motifs, patterns of storytelling, and ways that the Romance created the figure of Alexander. The same approach is applied to the work of Arrian, the most widely read and most reliable of the Alexander historians. What this analysis shows is that the boundaries between romance and history are less fixed than we usually suppose and that to read the history of Alexander critically means seeing how, in all genres, Alexander is a composite who grows out of the audience's desire to see in him the hero and the great man undone by his own character.
In light of America's post-9/11 involvement in the Middle East, teachers of ancient history can give new relevance to the Alexander era, another period in which a Western superpower projected military force into Mesopotamia and Central Asia. While the parallels between the two ventures are far from exact, the questions raised in connection with Alexander's campaigns, both by the ancient historians who recorded it and by modern scholars, will inevitably bring to students' minds similar questions about the U.S. involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. Such resonances, if acknowledged and explored in the classroom, can enliven and energize the study of ancient history, as well as better prepare young citizens for the choices they face.
This paper not only provides a commentary on the papers of the other panelists but also raises questions about the appropriate pedagogy employed in teaching modern university students. Intensive source criticism is a means of training students to assess evidence on a microcosmic scale, thereby determining the validity of ancient evidence about what happened in antiquity. Countering that approach is the study of larger historical issues—such as the impact of Alexander's conquests on the history of Europe and Asia—or the development of analogies between ancient and modern warfare in the Middle East. These pedagogical techniques are not mutually exclusive.