Lucas, bishop of Tuy, was a canon of the shrine of San Isidoro in León, protégé of Queen Berenguela, and figure at the court of her son, King Fernando III, of Leon-Castile. He was also the compiler and author of a world chronicle, Chronicon Mundi, finished about 1238. This study is particularly directed to the final nineteen chapters of his work that treat his own times, between 1188 and 1236. It is an analysis of his attitudes toward the medieval Iberian kings and kingship of that period, toward those monarchs' activities in the reconquista directed against Muslim Iberia, and toward the contemporary Church and churchmen.
Lucas' Chronicon, together with the De Rebus Hispaniae of Archbishop Rodrigo Jimenez de Rada finished in 1243, and the Cronica Latina Regum Castellae, completed after 1238 probably by the chancellor of the realm and later Bishop Juan of Soria and Burgos, form part of a remarkable contemporary trilogy of Latin historical works associated with the court of Fernando III. All have also been given a modern critical edition just recently, 2003, 1987, and 1997 respectively, putting their study on a new and more reliable scholarly level. While earlier scholarship had tended to be somewhat dismissive of the Chronicon of Lucas, it here emerges as a robust contribution to the very lively Latin historical compositions of the early thirteenth century in León-Castile.
Giacomo Antonio Marta (1557/58-1629) of Naples was a distinguished legal scholar and professor at several Italian universities. His education, warm feelings for the Jesuits, and career should have made him a papal defender in an era of church-state jurisdictional conflict. But in a legal work of 1609 he limited papal temporal rights and became a spy for James I of England. He published an anonymous pamphlet which excoriated the papacy for its alleged sins and called for a general council to depose Paul V. But not even his enemies believed that he was anything but a Catholic.
This study investigates the network of secondary education in northern Italy in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Citing specific examples, the Republic of Venice, the State of Milan, the Duchy of Savoy, it brings into the discussion new information as well as recent research, showing how the Church used education to re-establish its position in society. By providing a sample of individual establishments from different social and political setting, the author tries to promote a "history of comparisons" among the schools (or rather, a "correlated history of schools") and provide information for an atlas of Italian scholastic institutions, that a group of national universities is now in the process of preparing. It is not the scope of this study to investigate the transition from medieval to early modern school systems. Rather, this article charts the response to a profound crisis that affected education in the mid-sixteenth century: the political impact upon the educational system, demonstrating the unifying role of the Catholic Church but also the ways in which each school system responded to the social and political needs of the local state. This work examines seminaria nobilium, colleges, and seminaries directed by the Society of Jesus, the Barna-bites, and the Somaschans, connecting history and geography, social and economic factors.
In the early 1950's, Roman Catholics in America were underrepresented as psychiatric patients and practitioners, and a group of lay Catholic psychiatrists organized a National Guild of Catholic Psychiatrists and published the Bulletin of the Guild of Catholic Psychiatrists as a first step towards establishing an institutional Catholic presence within American psychiatry. From 1952 to 1968, the members of the Guild taught Catholic clergy to adopt psychiatric methods both for the selection and training of their members, and for the pastoral counsel with which they succored the laity. The Guild successfully introduced psychiatry into the Catholic experience, but they failed to create a thriving subculture within American psychiatry; the Guild is an exemplary failure in the efforts of Roman Catholics in America to create distinctly Catholic institutions.