Canadian Historical Review

The Canadian Historical Review
Volume 86, Number 1, March 2005

CONTENTS

    Crowley, John E., 1943-
  • 'Taken on the Spot': The Visual Appropriation of New France for the Global British Landscape
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    Subject Headings:
    • Landscape drawing, British -- New France.
    • Landscape drawing -- 18th century.
    • Landscape drawing -- Political aspects.
    Abstract:
      Until the arrival of topographic landscape artists with British forces in the 1750s, European representations of North American landscapes usually depended on artists' imaginations, with deliberately schematic and symbolic results. During the British invasion, occupation, and colonization of New France, artists appropriated the conquests visually with topographic renderings of the empire's new landscapes. Post-conquest representations of New France were part of the creation of a global British landscape, with Canada as a distinctive part. Colonial landscapes claiming topographical accuracy became frequent at the same time that Britain extended its imperial interests by conquests and accessions on a global scale - in Canada, the trans-Appalachian West, India, and the Pacific. Evidence from prints, drawings, maps, charts, and fiction show how the sublime aspects of Canada's scenery confirmed the grandeur of the imperial project against New France, while the picturesque landscapes of towns, farms, and shorelines promised an easily governed population readily subject to British improvements.

      Jusqu'à l'arrivée des paysagistes topographiques dans les forces britanniques au cours des années 1750, la représentation du paysage nord-américain par les Européens reposait le plus souvent sur la capacité imaginative de l'artiste, ce qui donnait des résultats délibérément schématiques et symboliques. Durant l'invasion, l'occupation et la colonisation de la Nouvelle-France par les Britanniques, les artistes procédèrent à une appropriation visuelle des territoires conquis en peignant la topographie des nouveaux paysages de l'empire. Les représentations de la Nouvelle-France d'après la conquête faisaient partie de la création d'un paysage britannique global, dont le Canada constituait une partie caractéristique. Les paysages coloniaux se réclamant d'une topographie exacte firent de fréquentes apparitions au même moment où la Grande-Bretagne étendait son empire grâce à des conquêtes et des rattachements menés à l'échelle mondiale - Canada, Ouest transappalachien, Inde et Pacifique. Les gravures, dessins, cartes terrestres et marines ainsi que les ouvrages de fiction démontrent comment le côté sublime du paysage canadien venait confirmer la grandeur du projet impérial face à la Nouvelle-France, alors que les vues pittoresques des villages, des fermes et des côtes offraient la promesse d'une population facile à gouverner, prête à accepter les aménagements proposés par les Britanniques.

    Terbenche, Danielle.
  • 'Curative' and 'Custodial': Benefits of Patient Treatment at the Asylum for the Insane, Kingston, 1878-1906
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    Subject Headings:
    • Asylum for the Insane (Kingston, Ont.) -- History.
    • Psychiatric hospitals -- Ontario -- Kingston -- History.
    • Women -- Institutional care -- Ontario -- Kingston -- History.
    Abstract:
      Nineteenth-century asylums have generally been portrayed negatively for their inability to offer a beneficial therapy program for patients. Identifying numerous contributing factors, historians have suggested that the practised 'moral treatment' therapy ultimately failed because it did not decrease numbers of custodial patients. Using the files of women patients admitted to the Asylum for the Insane in Kingston, Ontario, between 1878 and 1884, this paper offers an alternative view, demonstrating the successes of the treatment program for women suffering from milder forms of mental illness. It also questions the role of custodial care, suggesting that asylums also offered chronic patients a safe and compassionate alternative when all other options had been exhausted.

      Les asiles du dix-neuvième siècle ont été, en général, dépeints négativement en raison de leur incapacité d'offrir un programme thérapeutique bénéfique à leurs patients. Les historiens, après avoir identifié plusieurs facteurs, ont laissé entendre que la thérapie appliquée du « traitement moral » a échoué en fin de compte, car elle n'a pas diminué le nombre de patients en milieu surveillé. En s'appuyant sur les dossiers des patientes admises à l'Asile d'aliénés de Kingston (Ontario), entre 1878 et 1884, cet article offre un point de vue alternatif, démontrant le succès du programme de traitement pour femmes souffrant d'une forme plus bénigne de maladie mentale. Il met également en question le rôle des soins en milieu surveillé, en donnant à penser que les asiles offraient aux patientes chroniques une alternative sécuritaire et compatissante lorsque toutes les autres options avaient été épuisées.

    Mills, Sean.
  • When Democratic Socialists Discovered Democracy: The League for Social Reconstruction Confronts the 'Quebec Problem'
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    Subject Headings:
    • League for Social Reconstruction.
    • Nationalism -- Québec (Province)
    • Democracy -- Québec (Province)
    • Socialists -- Québec (Province) -- Montréal.
    Abstract:
      In the midst of the disorienting 1930s, Canadian socialists were at the forefront of attempts to define both the nation and its people. When the League for Social Reconstruction (LSR) emerged as the first group of socialist academics in Canada, it linked its goal of replacing the capitalist system with the full realization of the potentials of Canadian nationhood. Although historians have extensively studied the LSR, the challenge that French-Canadian nationalism posed to its national program has been largely ignored. For the League's Montreal members in particular, surrounded on all sides by Quebec's French-speaking majority, the importance of the social and political conditions of Quebec became centrally important to the shaping of their ideology. The fear of Quebec fascism caused many LSR Montreal members to redefine their political strategy, reaffirm their belief in civil liberties, and ultimately reinvent the very meaning that they attributed to social democracy.

      En plein cœur de la déroute des années 1930, les socialistes canadiens occupaient le premier plan parmi ceux qui cherchaient à définir la nation et son peuple. Lors de son émergence en tant que premier regroupement d'universitaires socialistes au Canada, la League for Social Reconstruction (LSR) relia son objectif visant à remplacer au pays le système capitaliste à la réalisation du plein potentiel de l'existence du Canada en tant que nation. Bien que les historiens aient examiné à fond la LSR, le défi posé par le nationalisme franco-canadien au programme national de la LSR a été en grande partie ignoré. En particulier, pour les membres montréalais de la ligue, encerclés par la majorité francophone du Québec, l'importance des conditions sociales et politiques du Québec devint un enjeu majeur dans la formation de leur idéologie. La crainte d'un fascisme québécois amena nombre de membres montréalais de la LSR à redéfinir leur stratégie politique, à réaffirmer leur croyance dans les libertés fondamentales, et, en fin de compte, à réinventer la signification même qu'ils attribuaient à la social-démocratie.

CHR Forum

    Phillips, Ruth B. (Ruth Bliss), 1945-
  • Re-placing Objects: Historical Practices for the Second Museum Age
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    Subject Headings:
    • Museum techniques -- Canada.
    • Anthropological museums and collections -- Canada.
    • Material culture -- Canada.
    • Museums and Indians -- Canada.
    Abstract:
      This essay addresses the museum as a site of historical practice in relation to the study of material culture study and to practices of historical and cultural representation. In the first sense, the museum acts as a special kind of archive that calls for a set of professional skills for the direct study of objects and for engagement with powerful new theorizations of the historical agency of objects. In the second sense, the museum serves as a theatre in which historical legacies of colonialism and contemporary tensions can be rehearsed and negotiated. Although material culture study has been devalued in recent years, its importance has been renewed by the contemporary needs of Aboriginal communities to recover their heritages, and it should be regarded as integrally connected to the challenges of representation in the museum's exhibits and public programs. Through a series of case studies the essay urges the importance of taking both kinds of practices into account in the design of the numerous new museums that are making the first decade of the twenty-first century into a second 'museum age.'

      Cet essai traite du musée perçu comme site de pratique historique en rapport avec l'examen de l'étude des cultures matérielles et avec les pratiques de la représentation historique et culturelle. Au sens premier, le musée est une sorte d'archives particulières, qui requiert un jeu de compétences professionnelles pour l'étude directe des objets et le travail d'élaboration de nouvelles théories convaincantes sur l'action historique des objets. Au sens second, le musée fait office de théâtre sur la scène duquel se jouent et se négocient les legs historiques du colonialisme et les tensions modernes. Bien que l'étude de la culture matérielle ait été dévaluée au cours des dernières années, elle a connu un regain d'importance dû au besoin actuel manifesté par les collectivités autochtones de recouvrer leur patrimoine, et il faudrait la voir comme intégralement liée à la question de la représentation dans les expositions et les programmes publics des musées. En se basant sur une série d'études de cas, cet essai souligne l'importance de tenir compte des deux genres de pratique lors de la conception des nouveaux espaces muséaux qui, par leur nombre, sont en train de faire de la première décennie du XXIe siècle une deuxième «ère du musée».

Book Reviews

    Brownlie, Robin, 1963-
  • 'Enough to Keep Them Alive': Indian Welfare in Canada, 1873-1965 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shewell, Hugh, 1947- 'Enough to keep them alive': Indian welfare in Canada, 1873-1965.
    • Indians of North America -- Public welfare -- Canada.
    Behiels, Michael D. (Michael Derek), 1946-
  • The Canadian Federalist Experiment: From Defiant Monarchy to Reluctant Republic (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Vaughan, Frederick. Canadian federalist experiment: from defiant monarchy to reluctant republic.
    • Canada -- Politics and government -- 1867-
    Cornett, Norman F.
  • Les deux chanoines: contradiction et ambivalence dans la pensée de Lionel Groulx (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bouchard, Gérard, 1943- Deux chanoines: contradiction et ambivalence dans la pensée de Lionel Groulx.
    • Groulx, Lionel Adolphe, 1878-1967 -- Political and social views.
    Jaumain, Serge.
  • Immigration, colonisation et propagande: Du rêve américain au rêve colonial (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Courville, Serge, 1943- Immigration, colonisation et propagande: du rêve américain au rêve colonial.
    • Emigration and immigration -- History.
    Pitsula, James M., 1950-
  • Dream No Little Dreams: A Biography of the Douglas Government of Saskatchewan, 1944-1961 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Johnson, A. W. (Albert Wesley), 1923- Dream no little dreams: a biography of the Douglas Government of Saskatchewan, 1944-1961.
    • Saskatchewan -- Politics and government -- 20th century.
    Wood, James.
  • Juno: Canadians at D-Day June 6, 1944, and: Juno Beach: Canada's D-Day Victory: June 6, 1944 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Barris, Theodore. Juno: Canadians at D-Day June 6, 1944.
    • Zuehlke, Mark, 1955- Juno Beach: Canada's D-Day victory: June 6, 1944.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Campaigns -- France -- Normandy.
    Wright, Donald.
  • Marriage of Minds: Isabel and Oscar Skelton Reinventing Canada (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Crowley, Terence Allan, 1946- Marriage of minds: Isabel and Oscar Skelton reinventing Canada.
    • Skelton, Isabel.
    Clausen, Kurt W.
  • À l'école de P.-J.-O. Chauveau: Éducation et culture au XIXe siècle (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sabourin, Hélène, 1937- À l'école de P.-J.-O. Chauveau: éducation et culture au XIXe siècle.
    • Chauveau, Pierre-J.-Olivier (Pierre-Joseph-Olivier), 1820-1890.
    Donskov, Andrew, 1939-
  • Negotiated Memory: Doukhobor Autobiographical Discourse (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rak, Julie, 1966- Negotiated memory: Doukhobor autobiographical discourse.
    • Dukhobors -- Canada -- Biography -- History and criticism.
    Franks, Ned.
  • Adventurers in the New World: The Saga of the Coureurs des Bois (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Germain, Georges-Hébert, 1944- Adventurers in the New World: the saga of the coureurs des bois.
    • Métis -- History.
    Gendron, Robin S.
  • Documents on Canadian External Relations / Documents relatifs aux relations extérieures du Canada, vol. 24: 1957-1958, Part I (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Canada. Dept. of External Affairs. Documents on Canadian external relations.
    • Stevenson, Michael D., 1967-, ed.
    • Canada -- Foreign relations.
    Hele, Karl.
  • Nation Iroquoise: A Seventeenth-Century Ethnography of the Iroquois (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Brandão, José António, 1957-, ed. Nation Iroquoise: a seventeenth-century ethnography of the Iroquois.
    • Cuillerier, René, 17th cent.
    • Iroquois Indians -- Social life and customs.
    Higgins, Ross.
  • A Brief History of GAY: Canada's First Gay Tabloid, 1964-1966 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McLeod, Donald W. (Donald Wilfred), 1957- Brief history of Gay: Canada's first gay tabloid, 1964-1966.
    • Gay (Toronto, Ont.) -- History.
    Huel, Raymond.
  • Mountain Diaries: The Alpine Adventures of Margaret Fleming, 1929-1980 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fleming, Margaret, 1901-1999. Mountain diaries: the alpine adventures of Margaret Fleming, 1929-1980.
    • Reichwein, PearlAnn, 1966-, ed.
    • Fox, Karen, ed.
    • Fleming, Margaret, 1901-1999.
    Kealey, Linda, 1947-
  • Women, Health and Nation: Canada and the United States since 1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Feldberg, Georgina D., 1956-, ed. Women, health and nation: Canada and the United States since 1945.
    • Women -- Health and hygiene -- Canada -- History -- 20th century.
    Kuffert, L. B. (Leonard B.), 1968-
  • Love, Hate and Fear in Canada's Cold War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cavell, Richard, 1949-, ed. Love, hate and fear in Canada's Cold War.
    • Canada -- Foreign relations -- 1945-
    Litt, Paul.
  • The Force of Culture: Vincent Massey and Canadian Sovereignty (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Finlay, Karen A. Force of culture: Vincent Massey and Canadian sovereignty.
    • Massey, Vincent, 1887-
    Loewen, Royden, 1954-
  • Faith, Life and Witness in the Northwest, 1903-2003: Centennial History of the Northwest Mennonite Conference (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Regehr, T. D. Faith, life and witness in the northwest, 1903-2003: centennial history of the Northwest Mennonite Conference.
    • Northwest Mennonite Conference -- History.
    Miquelon, Dale, 1940-
  • The 'Conquest' of Acadia, 1710: Imperial, Colonial, and Aboriginal Constructions (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Reid, John G., 1948- 'Conquest' of Acadia, 1710: imperial, colonial, and aboriginal constructions.
    • Acadia -- History.
    Berman, Paul.
  • Island Doctor: John Mackieson and Medicine in Nineteenth-Century Prince Edward Island (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shephard, David A. E. Island doctor: John Mackieson and medicine in nineteenth-century Prince Edward Island.
    • Mackieson, John, 1795-1885.
    Niergarth, Kirk.
  • Toward the Charter: Canadians and the Demand for a National Bill of Rights, 1929-1960 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Maclennan, Christopher, 1968- Toward the Charter: Canadians and the demand for a national bill of rights, 1929-1960.
    • Civil rights -- Canada -- History.
    Osborne, Brian S., 1938-
  • Country Post: Rural Postal Service in Canada, 1880-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Amyot, Chantal. Country post: rural postal service in Canada, 1880-1945.
    • Willis, John.
    • Rural free delivery -- Canada -- History.
    Parenteau, William.
  • Fish, Law, and Colonialism: The Legal Capture of Salmon in British Columbia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Harris, Douglas C. (Douglas Colebrook) Fish, law, and colonialism: the legal capture of salmon in British Columbia.
    • Indians of North America -- Fishing -- Law and legislation -- British Columbia -- History.
    Parenteau, William.
  • Tracking Doctor Lonecloud: Showman to Legend Keeper (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Whitehead, Ruth Holmes. Tracking Doctor Lonecloud: showman to legend keeper.
    • Lonecloud, Jerry, 1854-1930.
    Patterson, Shawn.
  • Canoeing the Churchill: A Practical Guide to the Historic Voyageur Highway (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Marchildon, Gregory P., 1956- Canoeing the Churchill: a practical guide to the historic voyageur highway.
    • Robinson, Sid, 1954-
    • Canoes and canoeing -- Canada -- Churchill River (Sask. and Man.) -- Guidebooks.
    Payment, Diane.
  • Patrimoines métissés: contextes coloniaux et postcoloniaux (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Turgeon, Laurier, 1954- Patrimoines métissés: contextes coloniaux et postcoloniaux.
    • Hybridity (Social sciences)
    Roy, Patricia, 1939-
  • The Sikh Diaspora in Vancouver: Three Generations amid Tradition, Modernity, and Multiculturalism (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nayar, Kamala E. (Kamala Elizabeth), 1966- Sikh diaspora in Vancouver: three generations amid tradition, modernity, and multiculturalism.
    • Sikhs -- British Columbia -- Vancouver -- Social conditions.
    St. Denis, Michael.
  • Exploring Polar Frontiers: A Historical Encyclopedia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mills, William J. (William James), 1951- Exploring polar frontiers: a historical encyclopedia.
    • Polar regions -- Encyclopedias.
    Thierry, Éric.
  • Acadian Legends, Folktales, and Songs from Prince Edward Island (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Arsenault, Georges, ed. Acadian legends, folktales, and songs from Prince Edward Island.
    • Ross, Sally, tr.
    • Folk literature, French-Canadian -- Prince Edward Island.
    Thrift, Gayle.
  • Anglicans in Canada: Controversies and Identity in Historical Perspective (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hayes, Alan Lauffer. Anglicans in Canada: controversies and identity in historical perspective.
    • Anglican Church of Canada -- History.
    Lafferty, Renée.
  • Governing Charities: Church and State in Toronto's Catholic Archdiocese, 1850-1950 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Maurutto, Paula, 1966- Governing charities: church and state in Toronto's Catholic archdiocese, 1850-1950.
    • Catholic Church -- Ontario -- Toronto -- Charities -- History.

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