Canadian Historical Review

The Canadian Historical Review
Volume 85, Number 1, March 2004

CONTENTS

    Castonguay, Stéphane.
  • Naturalizing Federalism: Insect Outbreaks and the Centralization of Entomological Research in Canada, 1884-1914
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    Subject Headings:
    • Insect pests -- Control -- Canada -- History -- 1867-1914.
    • Entomology -- Research -- Canada -- History -- 1867-1914.
    • Federal government -- Canada -- History -- 1867-1914.
    Abstract:
      This article examines the process leading to the centralization of entomological research in federal laboratories. It compares the successive representations of a natural phenomenon - insect outbreaks - by the first two dominion entomologists, James Fletcher and Charles Gordon Hewitt. In addition, it analyzes the legal and executive consequences of these representations on Canadian entomology.

      When the Canadian government established a series of entomological laboratories during the 1910s, crop protection was a domain where provincial governments were already busy providing technical support to local agricultural associations. The establishment of regional laboratories resulted from the adoption of the Destructive Insect and Pest Act in 1910, legislation that portrayed insect outbreaks as an interprovincial or an international problem under federal jurisdiction. The natural order conceptualized by federal scientists and legalized by the Canadian Parliament initiated a process of centralization. As the knowledge produced by the federal scientists reinforced representation of natural phenomena that legitimated their involvement across the national territory, the federal government concurrently achieved a political order by which it exerted its power over both nature and nation.

    Résumé:
      Cet article s'intéresse aux modalités entourant la centralisation de la recherche entomologique dans les laboratoires du gouvernement fédéral. Nous y comparons les représentations successives d'un phénomène naturel - l'infestation d'insectes - des deux premiers entomologistes du Dominion, James Fletcher et Charles Gordon Hewitt. Puis, nous examinons les conséquences légales et exécutives de ces représentations sur le développement de l'entomologie au Canada.

      Lorsque le gouvernement fédéral établit une série de laboratoires entomologiques durant les années 1910, la protection des cultures est un domaine principalement occupé par les gouvernements provinciaux qui fournissent un support technique aux sociétés agricoles locales. L'établissement de laboratoires régionaux découle de l'adoption de la Loi des insectes destructeurs et autres féaux en 1910, une législation qui présente l'infestation d'insectes comme un problème interprovincial ou international et qui tombe sous la juridiction du gouvernement fédéral. L'ordre naturel que conçoivent les scientifiques du gouvernement fédéral et que légalise le Parlement canadien enclenche un processus de centralisation. De ces laboratoires, les scientifiques du gouvernement fédéral produisent une connaissance qui renforce la représentation d'un phénomène naturel légitimant leur intervention à travers le territoire national. Ce faisant, le gouvernement accomplit concurremment un ordre naturel et politique par lequel il exerce son pouvoir sur l'environnement et la nation.

    Malissard, Pierrick.
  • "Pharming" à l'ancienne: les fermes vaccinales canadiennes
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    Subject Headings:
    • Vaccine farms -- Canada -- History.
    • Smallpox -- Vaccination -- Canada -- History.
    • Smallpox vaccine -- History.
    • Pharmaceutical industry -- Canada -- History.
    Abstract:
      Livestock was used to produce medically useful products long before pharming, a recent offshoot of genetic engineering, transformed the pharmaceutical industry. As early as the 1870s in North America, vaccine farms began to appear that quickly became the primary source of the smallpox vaccine. In Canada, these establishments existed for a long time - the last vaccine farm was sold in the 1950s - and are, to a certain extent, an early example of bio-pharming. Vaccine farms represent a little-known but important aspect of Canadian history. This article traces the circumstances in which vaccine farms emerged, their evolution, and their adoption in the twentieth century by new university laboratories. This article also reminds us of the forgotten controversy amid which these farms existed and argues that they marked a turning point whose social effects were significant - the centralization and the beginning of a more efficient monitoring of vaccine production, one that quelled the fears of a Canadian population faced with the prospect of vaccination. Finally, this article proposes that vaccine farms have paved the way for the current Canadian pharmaceutical industry.
    Résumé:
      L'utilisation du bétail pour produire des substances thérapeutiques s'est développée bien avant que le « pharming » ne vienne récemment transformer l'industrie pharmaceutique, grâce au génie génétique. Dès les années 1870, ont commencé à apparaître, en Amérique du Nord, des « fermes vaccinales » qui devinrent assez vite la principale source du vaccin antivariolique. Au Canada, ces établissements perdurèrent longtemps - la dernière ferme vaccinale fut vendue dans les années 1950 - et ils constituent, en quelque sorte, un exemple de « bio-pharming » de première génération. Ces fermes représentent un aspect important et peu connu de l'histoire canadienne : le présent article retrace donc les circonstances de leur émergence, de leur développement et de leur assimilation au XXe siècle par des nouveaux laboratoires rattachés à des universités. On constate ainsi que ces fermes apparaissent à la faveur d'une controverse oubliée jusqu'ici, qu'elles marquent un tournant dont les conséquences sociales furent majeures - la centralisation et le début d'un contrôle plus efficace de la production du vaccin qui permettront d'apaiser les craintes de la population face à la vaccination au Canada - et qu'elles contribuent à ouvrir la voie à l'industrie pharmaceutique canadienne contemporaine.
    Carlson, Hans M.
  • A Watershed of Words: Litigating and Negotiating Nature in Eastern James Bay, 1971-75
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    Subject Headings:
    • James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (1975)
    • Cree Indians -- James Bay Region -- Government relations.
    • Cree Indians -- James Bay Region -- Social conditions.
    • Cree philosophy.
    Abstract:
      In the years between 1971 and 1975 the province of Quebec, under the direction of Hydro-Québec, began the construction of the dams that created the Grande River Hydro-electric Complex in eastern James Bay. In these years, too, the Cree of the region began the process of fighting these provincial plans and, afterwards, dealing with the dams and all the changes they have brought in their wake. The Cree had been in the region for thousands of years as subsistence hunters, and they continued this relationship even after they had entered into the fur trade in the late seventeenth century. Anthropological studies completed in the late 1960s showed that the Cree maintained a traditional relationship with the land during the many months each year they spent hunting.

      This article is an environmental history of the events that began with the Cree bringing the province of Quebec to court over the hydroelectrical projects and ended with the signing of a treaty agreement. The case of Kanatewat v. The James Bay Development Corporation, which ran from November 1972 through November 1973, and the subsequent James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement form the primary resources for this research. This article argues that although the construction of the dams in James Bay altered the physical environment, it was the legal and political process that fundamentally changed the environmental context the Cree lived within. It seeks to connect the alteration of environmental language and definitions with physical changes that continue to challenge the Cree relationship with the land today.

      Dams are sources of electrical power that integrate distant regions within the technological geography of a power grid, but they are also sources of intellectual power that integrate a region within the cultural geography of those who must understand the land, in a very technical way, in order to make the physical dams possible. It was the replacement of one cultural discourse with another, both in the courts and at the negotiating table, that marked the watershed change in the nature of the eastern James Bay region.

    Résumé:
      Au cours de la période allant de 1971 à 1975, la province de Québec, sous l'autorité d'Hydro-Québec, a démarré la construction des barrages qui ont créé le complexe hydroélectrique La Grande, dans l'est de la Baie James. C'est aussi à cette époque que, pour les Cris de la région, a commencé le processus de lutte contre ces plans du gouvernement provincial et, ensuite, d'adaptation aux barrages et à tous les changements qui en ont résulté. Les Cris avaient vécu dans la région pendant des milliers d'années en pratiquant la chasse de subsistance et ils avaient continué à le faire même après s'être lancés dans la traite des fourrures à la fin du xviie siècle. Des études anthropologiques menées à la fin des années 1960 ont prouvé que, durant les nombreux mois où ils s'adonnaient à la chasse, les Cris conservaient avec leur terre un rapport très largement fondé sur la tradition.

      Cet article est l'histoire environnementale des événements qui ont débuté lorsque les Cris ont poursuivi la province de Québec devant les tribunaux pour la mise sur pied des projets hydroélectriques, et qui se sont clos par la signature d'une convention. La présente recherche s'appuie principalement sur le cas de Kanatewat c. la Société de développement de la Baie James (qui a duré de novembre 1972 à novembre 1973), ainsi que sur la Convention de la Baie James et du Nord québécois qui en a découlé. L'article soutient que si la construction des barrages de la Baie James a modifié le milieu physique, c'est le processus judiciaire et politique qui a fondamentalement changé le contexte environnemental dans lequel vivent les Cris. L'article cherche à connecter la transformation du langage environnemental et de ses définitions aux changements physiques qui, encore aujourd'hui, remettent en question le rapport des Cris avec leur terre.

      Les barrages sont des sources d'électricité qui intègrent des régions éloignées au sein de la géographie technologique d'un réseau électrique, mais ils sont également des sources de pouvoir intellectuel qui intègrent une région au sein de la géographie culturelle de ceux qui doivent comprendre la terre, d'une façon très technique, pour rendre possible la construction des barrages. C'est le remplacement d'un discours culturel par un autre, à la fois devant les tribunaux et à la table des négociations, qui a marqué le tournant décisif dans la nature de la région orientale de la Baie James.

CHR Forum

    Dick, Lyle.
  • 'A New History for the New Millennium': Canada: A People's History
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gillmor, Don. Canada: a people's history.
    • Turgeon, Pierre, 1947-
    • Canada -- Historiography.
    Abstract:
      In 2000-1, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation produced the two-volume book Canada: A People's History to accompany the television series of the same name. Although sharing certain affinities with the tv series, the book possessed a distinctive narrative structure that warrants analysis in its own right. In content, its text and images followed in the tradition of nation-building narratives of anglophone Canada, emphasizing the history of European peoples in northern North America from early exploration to the year 1990. In form, the book presented the past as a linear narrative, focusing on the role of major personalities and recurrent confrontations in Canadian history. In figurative terms, the narrative structure drew on biblical models, including treatments of the country's Creation, a Fall, struggles of a chosen people to reach a promised land, battles with demonic adversaries, parables offering instruction to readers, prophecies of a Messiah and his incarnation, restoration, and the country's redemption. In this latest application of typological explanation in Canadian historiography, the traditional nation-state was presented as both the realization of the country's original promise and the means of its future fulfillment. By these means, the book offered history as a path to national salvation.
    Résumé:
      En 2000-2001, la Société Radio-Canada a produit Le Canada: une histoire populaire, l'ouvrage en deux tomes qui accompagnait sa série d'émissions télévisées du même nom. Mais si le livre a eu certaines affinités avec la série télévisée, il n'en possédait pas moins sa propre structure narrative, qui mérite une analyse distincte. En ce qui concerne le contenu littéral, texte et images se conformaient à la tradition des discours du Canada anglophone sur l'édification du pays, soulignant l'histoire des peuples européens dans l'Amérique du Nord septentrionale depuis les débuts de l'exploration jusqu'en 1990. Quant à sa forme, le livre présentait le passé comme un récit linéaire, se concentrant sur le rôle des grands personnages et sur les affrontements répétés dans l'histoire du Canada. Au sens figuré, la structure narrative s'inspirait des modèles bibliques, y compris les thèmes de la genèse du pays, de la chute, de la lutte d'un peuple élu pour atteindre une terre promise, des batailles avec des adversaires démoniaques, des paraboles offrant un enseignement théorique aux lecteurs, des prophéties d'un messie ainsi que son incarnation, de la restauration, et de la rédemption du pays. Dans cette dernière application de l'explication typologique dans l'historiographie canadienne, l'État-nation traditionnel était présenté à la fois comme la concrétisation de la promesse originelle du pays, et comme le potentiel de sa réalisation future. De cette façon, le livre présentait l'histoire comme une voie menant au salut de la nation.

Reviews

    Tye, Diane, 1957-
  • Helen Creighton Fonds Multi-Media Web Page (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management. Helen Creighton Fonds multimedia web page [web site]
    • Creighton, Helen -- Archives.
    Serfilippi, Tanya.
  • Presenza: A New Look at Italian-Canadian Heritage (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Peressini, Mauro, cur. Presenza: a new look at Italian-Canadian heritage [exhibition]
    • Nebel, Constance, cur.
    • Canadian Museum of Civilization.
    • Italians -- Canada -- Social life and customs.
    Conrad, Margaret.
  • First Drafts: Eyewitness Accounts from Canada's Past (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Granatstein, J. L., ed First drafts: eyewitness accounts from Canada's past.
    • Hillmer, Norman, ed.
    • Canada -- History -- Sources.
    Swainger, Jonathan Scott, 1962-
  • The Lawmakers: Judicial Power and the Shaping of Canadian Federalism (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Saywell, John T., 1929- Lawmakers: judicial power and the shaping of Canadian federalism.
    • Judicial power -- Canada -- History.
    Brown, Blake.
  • Canadian State Trials, Volume 2: Rebellion and Invasion in the Canadas, 1837-1839 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Greenwood, F. Murray (Frank Murray), 1935-, ed. Canadian state trials.
    • Wright, Barry, 1957-, ed.
    • Trials (Political crimes and offenses) -- Canada.
    Errington, Elizabeth Jane, 1951-
  • Family Life and Sociability in Upper and Lower Canada, 1780-1870 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Noël, Françoise, 1952- Family life and sociability in Upper and Lower Canada, 1780-1870.
    • Family -- Ontario -- History -- 19th century.
    Jones, Karen, 1972-
  • Game in the Garden: A Human History of Wildlife in Western Canada to 1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Colpitts, George, 1964- Game in the garden: a human history of wildlife in Western Canada to 1940.
    • Animals and civilization -- Canada, Western.
    Brock, Peggy, 1948-
  • The Heavens Are Changing: Nineteenth-Century Protestant Missions and Tsimshian Christianity (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Neylan, Susan, 1966- Heavens are changing: nineteenth-century Protestant missions and Tsimshian Christianity.
    • Protestant churches -- Missions -- British Columbia -- Pacific Coast -- History -- 19th century.
    Bright, David.
  • Colonization and Community: The Vancouver Island Coalfield and the Making of the British Columbian Working Class (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Belshaw, John Douglas. Colonization and community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class.
    • Working class -- British Columbia -- Vancouver Island -- History.
    Craven, Paul, 1950-
  • Harnessing Labour Confrontation: Shaping the Postwar Settlement in Canada, 1943-1950 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McInnis, Peter S. (Peter Stuart), 1958- Harnessing labour confrontation: shaping the postwar settlement in Canada, 1943-1950.
    • Labor policy -- Canada -- History -- 20th century.
    Gray, Charlotte, 1948-
  • Sojourning Sisters, The Lives and Letters of Jessie and Annie McQueen, and: Constance Lindsay Skinner, Writing on the Frontier (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Barman, Jean, 1939- Sojourning sisters, the lives and letters of Jessie and Annie McQueen.
    • Barman, Jean, 1939- Constance Lindsay Skinner, writing on the frontier.
    • McQueen, Jessie, 1860-1933.
    • Skinner, Constance Lindsay, 1882-1939.
    Carlson, Keith, 1966-
  • Aboriginal Peoples of Canada: A Short Introduction (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Magocsi, Paul R., ed. Aboriginal peoples of Canada: a short introduction.
    • Indians of North America -- Canada -- History.
    Carlson, Keith, 1966-
  • The People of Denendeh: Ethnohistory of the Indians of Canada's Northwest Territories (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Helm, June, 1924- People of Denendeh: ethnohistory of the Indians of Canada's Northwest Territories.
    • Carterette, Teresa S.
    • Lurie, Nancy Oestreich.
    • Athapascan Indians -- Northwest Territories -- History.
    Morantz, Toby Elaine, 1943-
  • Mourir et renaître: La réception du christianisme par les Inuit de l'Arctique de l'Est canadien (1890-1940) (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Laugrand, Frédéric. Mourir et renaître: la réception du christianisme par les Inuit de l'Arctique de l'Est canadien (1890-1940)
    • Inuit -- Missions -- Canada, Northern.
    Nosal-Buzak, Melinda.
  • Women and the White Man's God: Gender and Race in the Canadian Mission Field (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rutherdale, Myra, 1961- Women and the white man's God: gender and race in the Canadian mission field.
    • Women missionaries -- Canada, Northern -- History.
    MacEachern, Alan Andrew, 1966-
  • Lost Land of Moses: The Age of Discovery on New Brunswick's Salmon Rivers (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Thomas, Peter, 1939- Lost land of Moses: the age of discovery on New Brunswick's salmon rivers.
    • Atlantic salmon fishing -- New Brunswick -- History -- 19th century.
    Harvey, Louis-Georges.
  • American Citizens, and British Slaves: Yankee Political Prisoners in an Australian Penal Colony, 1839-1850 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pybus, Cassandra. American citizens, and British slaves: Yankee political prisoners in an Australian penal colony, 1839-1850.
    • Maxwell-Stewart, Hamish.
    • Penal colonies -- Australia -- Tasmania -- History -- 19th century.
    Willis, John, 1954-
  • La cité au bout du fil: Le téléphone à Montréal de 1879 à 1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Poitras, Claire, 1965- Cité au bout du fil: le téléphone à Montréal de 1879 à 1930.
    • Telephone -- Québec (Province) -- Montréal -- History.
    Brennan, Patrick H.
  • Ernest Lapointe: Mackenzie King's Great Quebec Lieutenant (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Betcherman, Lita-Rose. Ernest Lapointe: Mackenzie King's great Quebec lieutenant.
    • Lapointe, Ernest, 1876-1941.
    Burke, Sara Z. (Sara Zena), 1963-
  • Creating Carleton: The Shaping of a University (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Neatby, H. Blair, 1924- Creating Carleton: the shaping of a university.
    • McEown, Donald C.
    • Carleton University -- History.
    Gillett, Margaret.
  • Setting the Agenda: Jean Royce and the Shaping of Queen's University (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hamilton, Roberta. Setting the agenda: Jean Royce and the shaping of Queen's University.
    • Royce, Jean, 1904-1982.
    Stortz, Paul.
  • The College on the Hill: A New History of the Ontario Agricultural College, 1874-1999 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ross, Alexander M., 1916- College on the hill: a new history of the Ontario Agricultural College, 1874-1999.
    • Crowley, Terence Allan, 1946-
    • Ontario Agricultural College -- History.
    Matsui, Kenichi.
  • The Mighty Niagara: One River - Two Frontiers (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jackson, John N. Mighty Niagara: one river - two frontiers.
    • Burtniak, John.
    • Stein, Gregory P.
    • Niagara River (N.Y. and Ont.) -- History.
    Jetté, Melinda Marie.
  • Undelivered Letters to Hudson's Bay Company Men on the Northwest Coast of America, 1830-57 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Beattie, Judith Hudson, ed. Undelivered letters to Hudson's Bay Company men on the Northwest Coast of America, 1830-57.
    • Buss, Helen M. (Helen Margaret), ed.
    • Hudson's Bay Company -- Employees -- Correspondence.
    Otter, A. A. den (Andy Albert den), 1941-
  • A Thousand Miles of Prairie: The Manitoba Historical Society and the History of Western Canada (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Blanchard, J. (Jim), ed. Thousand miles of prairie: the Manitoba Historical Society and the history of Western Canada.
    • Manitoba -- History -- Sources.
    Wadland, John Henry.
  • Wolf Mountains: A History of Wolves along the Great Divide (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jones, Karen, 1972- Wolf mountains: a history of wolves along the Great Divide.
    • Wolves -- Rocky Mountains.
    Macdonald, Daniel.
  • Bienfait: The Saskatchewan Miners' Struggle of '31 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Endicott, Stephen Lyon, 1928- Bienfait: the Saskatchewan miners' struggle of '31.
    • Coal Miners' Strike, Estevan, Sask., 1931.
    Gouglas, Sean.
  • A History of the Edmonton City Market, 1900-2000: Urban Values and Urban Culture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Merrett, Kathryn Chase, 1944- History of the Edmonton City Market, 1900-2000: urban values and urban culture.
    • Markets -- Alberta -- Edmonton -- History.
    May, Allyson N. (Allyson Nancy), 1961-
  • Girl Trouble: Female Delinquency in English Canada (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sangster, Joan, 1952- Girl trouble: female delinquency in English Canada.
    • Female juvenile delinquents -- Canada.
    Chambers, Anne Lorene, 1965-
  • Courted and Abandoned: Seduction in Canadian Law (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Brode, Patrick, 1950- Courted and abandoned: seduction in Canadian law.
    • Seduction -- Canada -- History -- 19th century.
    Noël, Françoise, 1952-
  • The Small Details of Life: 20 Diaries by Women in Canada, 1830-1996 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Carter, Kathryn, 1966-, ed. Small details of life: 20 diaries by women in Canada, 1830-1996.
    • Women -- Canada -- Diaries.
    Harrigan, Patrick J. (Patrick Joseph), 1941-
  • The Girl and the Game: A History of Women's Sport in Canada (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hall, M. Ann (Margaret Ann), 1942- Girl and the game: a history of women's sport in Canada.
    • Sports for women -- Canada -- History.
    Halpern, Monda M., 1963-
  • Organizing Rural Women: The Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario, 1897-1919 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kechnie, Margaret. Organizing rural women: the Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario, 1897-1919.
    • Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario -- History.
    Toman, Cynthia.
  • Sister Heroines: The Roseate Glow of Wartime Nursing, 1914-1918 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Norris, Marjorie, 1923- Sister heroines: the roseate glow of wartime nursing, 1914-1918.
    • World War, 1914-1918 -- Medical care -- Canada.
    Perry, Adele.
  • Race, Space, and the Law: Unmapping a White Settler Society (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Razack, Sherene, ed. Race, space, and the law: unmapping a white settler society.
    • Canada -- Race relations -- History.
    Barman, Jean, 1939-
  • Authors and Audience: Popular Canadian Fiction in the Early Twentieth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Karr, Clarence, 1941- Authors and audience: popular Canadian fiction in the early twentieth century.
    • Canadian fiction -- 20th century -- History and criticism.
    Stevenson, Michael D., 1967-
  • Second to None: The Fighting 58th Battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shackleton, Kevin R. Second to none: the Fighting 58th Battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force.
    • Canada. Canadian Army. Canadian Expeditionary Force. Battallion, 58th -- History.
    McGibbon, I. C. (Ian C.), 1947-
  • Far Eastern Tour: The Canadian Infantry in Korea, 1950-1953 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Watson, Brent Byron, 1970- Far Eastern tour: the Canadian infantry in Korea, 1950-1953.
    • Korean War, 1950-1953 -- Participation, Canadian.
    Gustavson, Wesley C.
  • Why Stay We Here? (Odyssey of a Canadian Officer in France in World War I) (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Godwin, George, b. 1889. Why stay we here? (odyssey of a Canadian officer in France in World War I)
    • World War, 1914-1918 -- Fiction.
    Churchill, Jason L.
  • 'Your Loving Son': Letters of an RCAF Navigator (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • King, George McCowan, 1922-1943. 'Your loving son': letters of an RCAF navigator.
    • King, Stephen L. V. (Stephen Leslie Val), 1972-, ed.
    • King, George McCowan, 1922-1943 -- Correspondence.
    Gendron, Robin S.
  • Documents on Canadian External Relations, vol. 23: 1956-1957, Part 2 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Donaghy, Greg, ed. Documents on Canadian external relations.
    • Canada -- Foreign relations -- Sources.
    Smith, David E., 1936-
  • Canada: The State of the Federation. Canadian Political Culture(s) in Transition (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Telford, Hamish, ed. Canada: the state of the federation. Canadian political culture(s) in transition.
    • Lazar, Harvey, ed.
    • Federal government -- Canada.
    Burr, Christina Ann, 1959-
  • Great Canadian Political Cartoons, 1915 to 1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hou, Charles, 1940- Great Canadian political cartoons, 1915 to 1945.
    • Hou, Cynthia, 1941-
    • Canada -- Politics and government -- 20th century -- Caricatures and cartoons.

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