Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Medicine -- United States -- Decision making -- History -- 20th century.
Physician and patient -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Since the late 1800s, changes in the advertising and marketing of medicinal drugs have produced heated debates in the United States. With the emergence of the modern prescription drug between 1938 and 1951, concerns that once focused primarily on patients' use of over-the-counter drugs were broadened to include physicians and their "doctors' drugs" as well. The medical profession's growing control over their patients' drug choices inevitably heightened the scrutiny of their own performance as consumers. Although deeply divided over issues of the patient's role in medical decision making, consumer activists and physician reformers expressed similar concerns about the impact of aggressive pharmaceutical marketing and advertising on the doctor-patient relationship, and starting in the late 1950s they employed strikingly similar strategies to counter the new corporate "medicine show." Yet their efforts to promote a more rational use of prescription drugs have usually been too little and too late to offset the effectiveness of pharmaceutical advertising and mar-keting activities.
Drug advertising, drug prescribing, health consumerism, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Federal Trade Commission (FTC), doctor-patient relationship
Vivisection -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
Women's rights -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
Women in medicine -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
Women -- Suffrage -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
This article examines the medical activism of the New York physician Mary Putnam Jacobi (1842–1906), to illustrate the problems of gender and science at the center of the vivisection debate in late nineteenth-century America. In the post–Civil War era, individuals both inside and outside the medical community considered vivisection to be a controversial practice. Physicians divided over the value of live animal experimentation, while reformers and activists campaigned against it. Jacobi stepped into the center of the controversy and tried to use her public defense of experimentation to the advantage of women in the medical profession. Her advocacy of vivisection was part of her broader effort to reform medical education, especially at women's institutions. It was also a political strategy aimed at associating women with scientific practices to advance a women's rights agenda. Her work demonstrates how debates over women in medicine and science in medicine, suffrage, and experimentation overlapped at a critical moment of historical transition.
Women physicians; vivisection; scientific medicine; women's rights movements; suffrage; Jacobi, Mary Putnam
Physician and patient -- United States -- History.
Neurasthenia -- Treatment -- United States -- History.
This article examines how the affliction of neurasthenia, commonly diagnosed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, acted as a catalyst for intellectual and lifestyle changes during a time of modernization. At the center of the study are three individuals: neurologist S. Weir Mitchell (1829–1914) and two of his patients, critic and historian Amelia Gere Mason (1831–1923) and writer and homemaker Sarah Butler Wister (1835–1908). Using archived correspondence between Mitchell and his patients, this article seeks to reveal how each woman tailored her treatment to fit her personal sensibilities; to reassess Mitchell's notorious reputation as a misogynist (gained largely from his 1887 treatment of Charlotte Perkins Gilman); and to develop a more nuanced understanding of the doctor-patient relationship in neurasthenia cases.
History, medicine, culture, gender, doctor-patient relationship, S. Weir Mitchell, Amelia Gere Mason, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Sarah Butler Wister
Copper miners -- Labor unions -- Chile -- Political activity -- History -- 20th century.
Physicians -- Chile -- Political activity -- History -- 20th century.
Copper industry and trade -- Safety regulations -- Chile -- History -- 20th century.
By the late 1930s, silicosis had become one of the most important occupational diseases in Chile. It was a medical and scientific problem, and a favorite topic in medical congresses; in Chile, a mining country, it also had serious political and economic implications. The recognition of silicosis did not happen in a vacuum, but was part of a national debate on the social role of the state and its responsibility toward working people's health and safety. This article traces the history of silicosis as an occupational disease from the late 1930s to the late 1960s, and argues that the recognition of the disease was the result of a medical, labor, and political struggle.
Silicosis, labor unions, social medicine, occupational diseases, Chile
Hypertension -- United States -- Prevention -- History -- 20th century.
Advertising -- Drugs -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
This article narrates the development and promotion in the 1950s and 1960s of Merck, Sharp & Dohme's Diuril (chlorothiazide), an antihypertensive drug, which played a significant role in the redefinition of high blood pressure as a widespread target for chronic pharmaceutical consumption. The joined careers of Diuril and hypertension in the late twentieth century demonstrate the connections between the clinical research, clinical practice, and marketing practices through which pharmaceuticals and disease categories come to define one another. By examining a series of internal documents preserved in the Merck Archives alongside a careful reading of the clinical literature and industry journals of the time, this article explores how the ambitions of marketers, physicians, and public health advocates found convergence in the expanding pharmaceutical prevention of chronic diseases.
Pharmaceutical, marketing, hypertension, twentieth century, drug industry, chronic disease
Unschuld, Paul U. (Paul Ulrich), 1943- Huang Di nei jing su wen: nature, knowledge, imagery in an ancient Chinese medical text.
Le ver, le démon et la vierge: Les théories médiévales de la génération extraordinaire. Une étude sur les rapports entre théologie, philosophie naturelle et médecine (review) [Access article in HTML][Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Lugt, Maaike van der. Ver, le démon et la Vierge: les théories médiévales de la génération extraordinaire. Une étude sur les rapports entre théologie, philosophie naturelle et médecine.
Prüll, Cay-Rüdiger. Medizin am Toten oder am Lebenden?: Pathologie in Berlin und in London, 1900-1945.
Pathology -- Germany -- Berlin -- History.
Mazumdar, Pauline M. H. (Pauline Margaret Hodgson),
Gesundheitsfürsorge zwischen humanitärem Anspruch und eugenischer Verpflichtung: Entwicklung und Kontinuität sozialhygienischer Anschauungen zwischen 1920 und 1960 am Beispiel von Prof. Dr. Carl Coerper (review) [Access article in HTML][Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Schütz, Horst. Gesundheitsfürsorge zwischen humanitärem Anspruch und eugenischer Verpflichtung: Entwicklung und Kontinuität sozialhygienischer Anschauungen zwischen 1920 und 1960 am Beispiel von Prof. Dr. Carl Coerper.
National socialism -- History.
Fallwell, Lynne Anne.
Medical Films, Ethics and Euthanasia in Nazi Germany: The History of Medical Research and Teaching Films of the Reich Office for Educational Films/ Reich Institute for Films in Science and Education, 1933-1945 (review) [Access article in HTML][Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Schmidt, Ulf, 1967- Medical films, ethics and euthanasia in Nazi Germany: the history of medical research and teaching films of the Reich Office for Educational Films/ Reich Institute for Films in Science and Education, 1933-1945.