Bulletin of the History of Medicine

Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Volume 79, Number 2, Summer 2005

CONTENTS

Articles

    Pormann, Peter E.
  • The Physician and the Other: Images of the Charlatan in Medieval Islam
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    Subject Headings:
    • Medicine, Medieval -- Arab countries.
    • Quacks and quackery -- Arab countries -- History -- To 1500.
    Abstract:
      Physicians have always tried to demarcate themselves from the Other, whom they labeled as a "charlatan." During the medieval period, Arabic physicians such as al-Rāzī attacked charlatans in their theoretical and deontological writings, and, like their Greek predecessors, called on the authorities to stamp out malpractice. Their advice was partly heeded, as can be seen from manuals on market inspection (hisba). Physicians accused their colleagues of quackery based on charges of incompetence or deceit, which must be seen partly as an attempt to protect themselves from potential competitors. Certain groups of society, including women and Jews, were an especially convenient target. Moreover, charlatans also appear in nonmedical texts such as al-Ğaubarī's manual on tricksters and al-Harīrī's Assemblies or Maqāmāt. These accounts suggest that, despite the calls of the medical elite to exclude quacks from the marketplace, the latter were able to attract customers and continue to practice.
    Keywords:
      medieval Islamic medicine, medical deontology, quackery, anti-Semitism, female practitioners, market inspection (hisba)
    King, Steven.
  • "Stop This Overwhelming Torment of Destiny": Negotiating Financial Aid at Times of Sickness under the English Old Poor Law, 1800-1840
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    Subject Headings:
    • Poor -- Medical care -- England -- Lancashire -- History -- 19th century.
    • Poor -- Medical care -- Law and legislation -- England -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      The issue of entitlement under the English Poor Law (1601–1834) is a complex question, and nowhere more so than in the context of the sick poor. Using the example of communities in one of England's most parsimonious Poor Law counties, Lancashire, this article will show that the sick poor faced uncertain and uneven entitlement to relief and medical intervention. Faced with such uncertainty, they adopted three core linguistic and posturing strategies when attempting to establish their eligibility for relief in the eyes of Poor Law officials. Pauper letters and the correspondence of overseers of the poor and vestries are used to unpick the process of obtaining poor relief and to highlight the subtle strategization of pauper applicants. The article concludes by suggesting that there may have been a regional patterning in access to medical relief in England in the last decades of the Old Poor Law.
    Keywords:
      Lancashire; sickness; poverty; medical relief; pauper letters; overseers; vestries; entitlement
    Slater, Leo Barney.
  • Malarial Birds: Modeling Infectious Human Disease in Animals
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    Subject Headings:
    • Malaria -- Research -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Through the examination of avian malarias as models of infectious human disease, this paper reveals the kinds of claims that scientists and physicians made on the basis of animal models—biological systems in the laboratory and the field—and what characteristics made for congruence between these models and human malaria. The focus is on the period between 1895 and 1945, and on the genesis and trajectory of certain animal models of malaria within specific locations, such as the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Baltimore and Bayer (I. G. Farben) in Elberfeld. These exemplars illustrate a diversity of approaches to malaria-as-disease, and the difficulties of framing aspects of this disease complex within an animal or laboratory system. The diversity and nearness to wild types of the birds, protozoan parasites, and mosquitoes that made up these malaria models contributed a great deal to the complexity of the models. Avian malarias, adopted with enthusiasm, were essential to the success of the U.S. antimalarial program during World War II.
    Keywords:
      malaria, avian malaria, history of infectious disease, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, World War II antimalarial program
    Litsios, Socrates.
  • Selskar Gunn and China: The Rockefeller Foundation's "Other" Approach to Public Health
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gunn, Selskar, 1883-1944.
    • Rockefeller Foundation.
    • Public health -- China.
    • Rural development -- China.
    Abstract:
      The Rockefeller Foundation's program for rural development in China was developed by Selskar Gunn during the period 1932–34 and was initiated in 1935. It was multidisciplinary in nature, and its aim was to raise the educational, social, and economic standards of rural China. It was recognized by some at the time as an alternative to the International Health Division's approach to public health. This paper describes the program, what led Gunn to develop it in China, and the internal tensions that it created. Also addressed is the question of why this program had such limited impact on subsequent developments in the field of international health.
    Keywords:
      social medicine, public health, rural development, China

News and Events

Book Reviews

    Pormann, Peter E.
  • The Fragments of the Methodists (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tecusan, Manuela. Fragments of the Methodists.
    • Methodism (Ancient medicine)
    Scarborough, John.
  • On the Properties of Foodstuffs ("De alimentorum facultatibus") (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Galen. On the properties of foodstuffs ("De alimentorum facultatibus")
    • Powell, O. W., tr.
    • Wilkins, John, 1954-
    • Galen. De alimentorum facultatibus.
    Gilbert, Ruth.
  • Monstrous Bodies/Political Monstrosities in Early Modern Europe (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Knoppers, Laura Lunger, ed. Monstrous bodies/political monstrosities in early modern Europe.
    • Landes, Joan B., 1946-, ed.
    • Europe -- History -- 1492-1648 -- Psychological aspects.
    McGough, Laura J.
  • Venereal Disease, Hospitals, and the Urban Poor: London's "Foul Wards," 1600-1800 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Siena, Kevin Patrick. Venereal disease, hospitals, and the urban poor: London's "foul wards," 1600-1800.
    • Sexually transmitted diseases -- England -- London -- History -- 17th century.
    Dixon, Laurinda S.
  • Moved by Love: Inspired Artists and Deviant Women in Eighteenth-Century France (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sheriff, Mary D. Moved by love: inspired artists and deviant women in eighteenth-century France.
    • Arts, French -- 18th century -- Themes, motives.
    Spang, Rebecca L.
  • Bacchic Medicine: Wine and Alcohol Therapies from Napoleon to the French Paradox (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Paul, Harry W. Bacchic medicine: wine and alcohol therapies from Napoleon to the French Paradox.
    • Wine -- Therapeutic use.
    McCandless, Peter.
  • Madness, Malingering, and Malfeasance: The Transformation of Psychiatry and the Law in the Civil War Era (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lande, R. Gregory. Madness, malingering, and malfeasance: the transformation of psychiatry and the law in the Civil War era.
    • Malingering -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Stowe, Steven M.
  • Rehabilitating Bodies: Health, History, and the American Civil War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Long, Lisa A. Rehabilitating bodies: health, history, and the American Civil War.
    • United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Historiography.
    Gariepy, Thomas P.
  • Bullets and Bacilli: The Spanish-American War and Military Medicine (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cirillo, Vincent J. Bullets and bacilli: the Spanish-American War and military medicine.
    • Spanish-American War, 1898 -- Medical care.
    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle.
  • Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Briggs, Laura, 1964- Reproducing empire: race, sex, science, and U.S. imperialism in Puerto Rico.
    • Birth control -- Puerto Rico -- History.
    Anderson, Warwick.
  • Empire of Care: Nursing and Migration in Filipino American History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Choy, Catherine Ceniza, 1969- Empire of care: nursing and migration in Filipino American history.
    • Nurses -- Philippines.
    Edmonson, James M.
  • Medicine Man: The Forgotten Museum of Henry Wellcome (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Arnold, Ken, ed. Medicine man: the forgotten museum of Henry Wellcome.
    • Olsen, Danielle, ed.
    • Wellcome, Henry S. (Henry Solomon), Sir, 1853-1936.
    Fangerau, Heiner.
  • Clinical Psychiatry in Imperial Germany: A History of Psychiatric Practice (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Engstrom, Eric J. Clinical psychiatry in imperial Germany: a history of psychiatric practice.
    • Psychiatry -- Germany -- History -- 19th century.
    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel.
  • Any Friend of the Movement: Networking for Birth Control, 1920-1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Meyer, Jimmy Elaine Wilkinson. Any friend of the movement: networking for birth control, 1920-1940.
    • Birth control -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Roberts, Samuel.
  • An American Health Dilemma. Vol. 2, Race, Medicine, and Health Care in the United States, 1900-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Byrd, W. Michael. American health dilemma.
    • Clayton, Linda A.
    • African Americans -- Health and hygiene -- History.
    Crellin, J. K.
  • Folk Medicine in Southern Appalachia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cavender, Anthony P. Folk medicine in southern Appalachia.
    • Traditional medicine -- Appalachian Region, Southern -- History.
    Jones, David S. (David Shumway)
  • Revenge of the Windigo: The Construction of the Mind and Mental Health of North American Aboriginal Peoples (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Waldram, James B. (James Burgess) Revenge of the windigo: the construction of the mind and mental health of North American Aboriginal peoples.
    • Indians of North America -- Psychology.
    Shilkret, Robert.
  • Mental Retardation in America: A Historical Reader (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Noll, Steven, ed. Mental retardation in America: a historical reader.
    • Trent, James W., ed.
    • Mental retardation -- United States.
    Guerrini, Anita.
  • Making Mice: Standardizing Animals for American Biomedical Research, 1900-1955 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rader, Karen A. (Karen Ann), 1967- Making mice: standardizing animals for American biomedical research, 1900-1955.
    • Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, Me.)
    Vollmer, Amy Cheng.
    Vollmer, Steven J.
  • The Microbial Models of Molecular Biology: From Genes to Genomes (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Davis, Rowland H. Microbial models of molecular biology: from genes to genomes.
    • Molecular biology -- History.
    McClelland, Charles E.
  • Ärztliche Standesorganisation und Standespolitik in Deutschland, 1945-1955 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gerst, Thomas. Ärztliche Standesorganisation und Standespolitik in Deutschland, 1945-1955.
    • Physicians -- Germany (West) -- Societies, etc. -- History -- 20th century.
    Whorton, James C.
  • A Social History of Medicines in the Twentieth Century: To Be Taken Three Times a Day (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Crellin, J. K. Social history of medicines in the twentieth century: to be taken three times a day.
    • Drugs -- North America -- History -- 20th century.
    Bresalier, Michael.
  • Growing Pathogens in Tissue Cultures: Fifty Years in Academic Tropical Medicine, Pediatrics, and Virology (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Weller, Thomas Huckle, 1915- Growing pathogens in tissue cultures: fifty years in academic tropical medicine, pediatrics, and virology.
    • Komaroff, Anthony L., ed.
    • Barlow, Ellen.
    • Weller, Thomas Huckle, 1915-
    Howell, Joel D.
  • The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: The First 25 Years, 1970-1995 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Abelmann, Walter H., ed. Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: the first 25 years, 1970-1995.
    • Harvard University--MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology -- Catalogs.
    Fox, Daniel M.
  • Governance of Teaching Hospitals: Turmoil at Penn and Hopkins (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kastor, John A. Governance of teaching hospitals: turmoil at Penn and Hopkins.
    • Teaching hospitals -- Maryland -- Baltimore -- Administration.
    Mooney, Graham.
  • The Gold Standard: The Challenge of Evidence-Based Medicine and Standardization in Health Care (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Timmermans, Stefan, 1968- Gold standard: the challenge of evidence-based medicine and standardization in health care.
    • Berg, Marc.
    • Medical care -- Standards.
    Finkelstein, Shlomit Ritz.
  • Picturing Personhood: Brain Scans and Biomedical Identity (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dumit, Joseph. Picturing personhood: brain scans and biomedical identity.
    • Brain -- Tomography.
    Löwy, Ilana.
  • Biomedical Platforms: Realigning the Normal and the Pathological in Late-Twentieth-Century Medicine (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Keating, Peter, 1953- Biomedical platforms: realigning the normal and the pathological in late-twentieth-century medicine.
    • Cambrosio, Alberto, 1950-
    • Social medicine.
    Gilman, Sander L.
  • One of Us: Conjoined Twins and the Future of Normal (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dreger, Alice Domurat. One of us: conjoined twins and the future of normal.
    • Conjoined twins.
    Ballenger, Jesse F.
  • Let Them Eat Prozac: The Unhealthy Relationship between the Pharmaceutical Industry and Depression (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Healy, David, MRC Psych. Let them eat Prozac: the unhealthy relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and depression.
    • Serotonin uptake inhibitors.
    Acker, Caroline Jean.
  • Pharmacopolitics: Drug Regulation in the United States and Germany (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Daemmrich, Arthur A. Pharmacopolitics: drug regulation in the United States and Germany.
    • Pharmaceutical policy -- United States.
    Galambos, Louis.
  • Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry: The Process of Drug Discovery and Development (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hara, Takuji, 1962- Innovation in the pharmaceutical industry: the process of drug discovery and development.
    • Drug development -- Japan.
    Fee, Elizabeth.
  • The AIDS Pandemic: Complacency, Injustice, and Unfulfilled Expectations (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gostin, Larry O. (Larry Ogalthorpe) AIDS pandemic: complacency, injustice, and unfulfilled expectations.
    • AIDS (Disease) -- Social aspects.
    Oldstone, Michael B. A.
  • Spores, Plagues, and History: The Story of Anthrax (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Holmes, Chris. Spores, plagues, and history: the story of anthrax.
    • Anthrax -- History.
    Prioreschi, Plinio.
  • A Brief History of Disease, Science, and Medicine: From the Ice Age to the Genome Project (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kennedy, Michael, 1938- Brief history of disease, science, and medicine: from the Ice Age to the Genome Project.
    • Medicine -- History.

Book Notes

    Packard, Randall M.
    Bylebyl, Jerome J.
    Brieger, Gert H.
    Abrams, Susan L.
  • Book Notes
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Haubrich, William S. Medical meanings: a glossary of word origins.
    • Chadarevian, Soraya de, ed. Models: the third dimension of science.
    • Hopwood, Nick, ed.
    • Keynes, W. Milo (William Milo), ed. Century of Mendelism in human genetics.
    • Edwards, A. W. F. (Anthony William Fairbank), 1935-, ed.
    • Peel, Robert Anthony, 1953-, ed.

Books Received

Contributors




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