Quacks and quackery -- Arab countries -- History -- To 1500.
Physicians have always tried to demarcate themselves from the Other, whom they labeled as a "charlatan." During the medieval period, Arabic physicians such as al-Rāzī attacked charlatans in their theoretical and deontological writings, and, like their Greek predecessors, called on the authorities to stamp out malpractice. Their advice was partly heeded, as can be seen from manuals on market inspection (hisba). Physicians accused their colleagues of quackery based on charges of incompetence or deceit, which must be seen partly as an attempt to protect themselves from potential competitors. Certain groups of society, including women and Jews, were an especially convenient target. Moreover, charlatans also appear in nonmedical texts such as al-Ğaubarī's manual on tricksters and al-Harīrī's Assemblies or Maqāmāt. These accounts suggest that, despite the calls of the medical elite to exclude quacks from the marketplace, the latter were able to attract customers and continue to practice.
Poor -- Medical care -- England -- Lancashire -- History -- 19th century.
Poor -- Medical care -- Law and legislation -- England -- History -- 19th century.
The issue of entitlement under the English Poor Law (1601–1834) is a complex question, and nowhere more so than in the context of the sick poor. Using the example of communities in one of England's most parsimonious Poor Law counties, Lancashire, this article will show that the sick poor faced uncertain and uneven entitlement to relief and medical intervention. Faced with such uncertainty, they adopted three core linguistic and posturing strategies when attempting to establish their eligibility for relief in the eyes of Poor Law officials. Pauper letters and the correspondence of overseers of the poor and vestries are used to unpick the process of obtaining poor relief and to highlight the subtle strategization of pauper applicants. The article concludes by suggesting that there may have been a regional patterning in access to medical relief in England in the last decades of the Old Poor Law.
Lancashire; sickness; poverty; medical relief; pauper letters; overseers; vestries; entitlement
Through the examination of avian malarias as models of infectious human disease, this paper reveals the kinds of claims that scientists and physicians made on the basis of animal models—biological systems in the laboratory and the field—and what characteristics made for congruence between these models and human malaria. The focus is on the period between 1895 and 1945, and on the genesis and trajectory of certain animal models of malaria within specific locations, such as the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Baltimore and Bayer (I. G. Farben) in Elberfeld. These exemplars illustrate a diversity of approaches to malaria-as-disease, and the difficulties of framing aspects of this disease complex within an animal or laboratory system. The diversity and nearness to wild types of the birds, protozoan parasites, and mosquitoes that made up these malaria models contributed a great deal to the complexity of the models. Avian malarias, adopted with enthusiasm, were essential to the success of the U.S. antimalarial program during World War II.
malaria, avian malaria, history of infectious disease, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, World War II antimalarial program
The Rockefeller Foundation's program for rural development in China was developed by Selskar Gunn during the period 1932–34 and was initiated in 1935. It was multidisciplinary in nature, and its aim was to raise the educational, social, and economic standards of rural China. It was recognized by some at the time as an alternative to the International Health Division's approach to public health. This paper describes the program, what led Gunn to develop it in China, and the internal tensions that it created. Also addressed is the question of why this program had such limited impact on subsequent developments in the field of international health.
social medicine, public health, rural development, China