Hospital architecture -- New York (State) -- New York -- History.
New York Hospital -- History.
Isolation (Hospital care) -- New York (State) -- New York -- History.
Erysipelas -- Treatment -- New York (State) -- New York -- History.
This paper examines changing strategies of isolation in the New York Hospital between 1771 and 1930 by correlating the facilities available for isolation with changing reactions to internal disease incidence, changing medical rules and regulations, and shifting ward categories. To prevent internal "epidemics" of telltale diseases such as erysipelas, pyemia, and "hospital gangrene," what (or who) was isolated from what, and how that isolation was achieved, altered drastically. Traditional strategies of increasing the air space and flow around each patient gave way to Florence Nightingale's sanitary nursing, Joseph Lister's antisepsis, Joseph Grancher's barrier system of nursing, D. L. Richardson's aseptic nursing, and Charles Chapin's advocacy of individual cubicles. The larger social and medical transformations of the hospital colored all of these shifts. But the changing isolation strategies also reveal a transformation of the underlying understanding of the role that hospital architecture played in disease incidence.
isolation, nineteenth- and twentieth-century hospital architecture, erysipelas, New York
Pharmaceutical industry -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Academic-industrial collaboration -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Medical innovations -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
This essay describes collaborations between American pharmaceutical companies and clinical investigators, mainly in academic medical centers and other research institutions, during the interwar period. I argue that efforts on the part of early twentieth-century "scientific medicine" reformers to impose higher standards on the testing and promotion of pharmaceuticals led both to the intended disciplining of the drug industry and also, as a reciprocal but unintended consequence, to a deep involvement with industry among medical scientists. Three basic patterns of collaboration between clinical trialists and sponsoring drugs firms are described. These patterns may help illuminate the mutual accommodation between ethical drug firms and academic clinical researchers (and institutions) that still prevails today.
Boston Women's Health Book Collective. Our bodies, ourselves: a book by and for women.
Women -- Books and reading -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Women -- Health and hygiene -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Feminism -- United States -- History.
This paper focuses on those ordinary women who responded to editions of Our Bodies, Ourselves in the 1970s and 1980s, illustrating how readers played a crucial role in the development and articulation of health feminism. By analyzing the exchange between writers and readers of the most popular and influential women's health text of this era, it reveals the process by which feminists translated and interpreted medical information about women's bodies. The personal stories of readers challenge us to consider the role of ordinary women in shaping the development of the women's health movement.
women's health movement, feminism, sexuality, Our Bodies, Ourselves
Sigerist, Henry E. (Henry Ernest), 1891-1957 -- Correspondence.
Beltrán, Juan Ramón, 1894- -- Correspondence.
Medicine -- Latin America -- History -- 20th century.
American Association for the History of Medicine -- History.
During the years of World War II, the American Association for the History of Medicine fostered a Pan-American policy aimed at establishing relationships with Latin American historians of medicine. Juan R. Beltrán, professor of history of medicine at the University of Buenos Aires, also pursued an energetic program of academic diplomacy. The correspondence between Henry Sigerist and Beltrán makes manifest that by 1941 good channels of communication were established between Baltimore and Buenos Aires, but the friendly links did not last long. The motives for this can be found in the competing aims of the AAHM and Beltrán, and the pattern of international relationships during the war years.
Sigerist, American Association for the History of Medicine, Beltrán, Latin America, Argentina