Bulletin of the History of Medicine

Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Volume 78, Number 4, Winter 2004

CONTENTS

Articles

    Chang, Ku-Ming (Kevin)
  • Motus Tonicus: Georg Ernst Stahl's Formulation of Tonic Motion and Early Modern Medical Thought
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stahl, Georg Ernst, 1660-1734.
    • Blood -- Circulation -- Early works to 1800.
    • Vitalism -- Early works to 1800.
    Abstract:
      This paper places in multiple contexts Stahl's formulation of tonic motion, a contractive and relaxative movement of body tissues that was thought to moderate the circulatory blood flowing through their porous structure. The paper analyzes Stahl's theory, elucidates its role in connecting his physiology and pathology, and situates its formulation in his conceptual development as well as the intellectual history of early modern medicine. The theory was at first a post-Harveyan attempt to explain occasional uneven blood flows; it was then expanded to account for the mechanism of blood circulation and metabolism, and formed a fundamental part of Stahl's effort to present a theory of animal heat and fever that would replace the traditional Galenic and fermentational theories. Tonic motion constituted the most important device that counteracted the ineluctable, unceasing corruption of the body, as dictated by its chemical nature; it thus qualified as the preeminent form of what Stahl considered vital motions.
    Keywords:
      Stahl, Georg Ernst; tonic motion; blood circulation; metabolism; fever; early modern medicine
    Matsumura, Janice.
  • State Propaganda and Mental Disorders: The Issue of Psychiatric Casualties among Japanese Soldiers During the Asia-Pacific War
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    Subject Headings:
    • Medical policy -- Japan -- History -- 20th century.
    • Soldiers -- Mental health services -- Political aspects -- Japan -- History -- 20th century.
    • Military psychiatry -- Japan -- History -- 20th century.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Casualties -- Japan.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Japan -- Psychological aspects.
    Abstract:
      This article explores the politics of Japanese wartime medical policy, demonstrating how state propaganda about the people and their armed forces influenced authoritative views on health and what might endanger it. By focusing on the obstacles faced by psychiatrists trying to promote more official concern for mental health issues, it challenges the validity of figures indicating a low incidence of psychological trauma among the country's soldiers. Civilian psychiatrists had to contend with the threat of censorship and arrest for even discussing war-induced mental disorders; at the same time, army psychiatrists as military insiders were pressured to convince their patients that their conditions were not serious and did not merit compensation. While discussing the neglected topic of Japanese psychiatric casualties, an attempt is made to provide a comparative approach by referring to the state of military psychiatry in other national settings.
    Keywords:
      Japan, psychiatry, wartime casualties, thought control, strategic planning
    Krueger, Gretchen Marie.
  • Death Be Not Proud: Children, Families, and Cancer in Postwar America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gunther, John, 1901-1970. Death be not proud.
    • Gunther, John, 1929-1947 -- Death and burial.
    • Cancer -- United States -- Mortality -- History -- 20th century.
    • Children -- United States -- Mortality -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      On 30 June 1947, after a fifteen-month illness, seventeen-year-old Johnny Gunther died from a rare brain tumor. In Death Be Not Proud, Johnny's father, noted journalist John Gunther, meticulously recorded the exhaustive hunt for therapeutic options he and his ex-wife pursued during their son's illness. In "A Word from Frances," a short section written by Johnny's mother, she reflected upon her relationship with her son and his untimely death. The inclusion of Johnny's letters and diary entries helped to preserve Johnny's voice after his death and, consequently, to personify one young cancer sufferer and his family. In the 1940s, when cancer was identified as a leading cause of childhood mortality, Johnny and the best-selling memoir helped raise cancer awareness, especially about young sufferers. However, thousands of letters sent from across the country attested to the broader impact of the Gunthers' poignant story. Letters from parents demonstrated that cancer, childhood illness, and death threatened two ideals of postwar America: unlimited biomedical progress, and the child-centered family.
    Keywords:
      cancer, childhood cancer, death, child, family, illness narrative, postwar America
    Jurdjevic, Mark.
    Tillman, Caitlin.
  • Texts and Documents: E. C. Noble in June 1921, and His Account of the Discovery of Insulin
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    Subject Headings:
    • Noble, E. Clark.
    • Insulin -- History -- 20th century -- Sources.
    Abstract:
      This article concerns the events in Toronto during June 1921 that led to the discovery of insulin and the controversy that followed. It draws attention to the hitherto unnoticed participation of E. C. Noble in the early lab work on dog 386 between 17 June and 26 June 1921. None of the accounts of the discovery of insulin written by the principal discoverers, Frederick Banting, Charles Best, J. B. Collip, and J. J. R. Macleod, acknowledge Noble's participation in the lab. The fact of his participation has several implications worth noting, as they refine the history of the discovery of insulin—not the least of which is the demonstration of his credentials as a reliable witness to the lab environment in which the first successes were achieved. He remains the only participant in the discovery whose account of the insulin project has not been published; this article includes Noble's anniversary account of 1971.
    Keywords:
      Insulin, discovery of; Banting, Sir Frederick Grant; Best, Charles H.; Noble, E. Clark; diabetes; Bliss, Michael; Macleod, J. J. R.; Collip, J. B.

Forum: Feminist Scholarship

    Green, Monica Helen.
  • Comment
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    Subject Headings:
    • Scarborough, John. Medicine and the making of Roman women: gender, nature, and authority from Celsus to Galen (review)
    • Flemming, Rebecca. Medicine and the making of Roman women: gender, nature, and authority from Celsus to Galen.
    • Medicine, Greek and Roman.
    • Feminism.
    Scarborough, John.
  • Author's Response
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    Subject Headings:
    • Green, Monica Helen. Comment.
    • Flemming, Rebecca. Medicine and the making of Roman women: gender, nature, and authority from Celsus to Galen.
    • Medicine, Greek and Roman.
    • Feminism.

News and Events

Book Reviews

    Nutton, Vivian.
  • Les médecins dans le monde grec: Sources épigraphiques sur la naissance d'un corps médical (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Samama, Evelyne. Médecins dans le monde grec: sources épigraphiques sur la naissance d'un corps médical.
    • Medicine, Greek and Roman -- History -- Sources.
    Rutkin, H. Darrel.
  • "Ingeniosa scientia nature": Studi sulla fisiognomica medievale (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Agrimi, Jole. "Ingeniosa scientia nature": studi sulla fisiognomica medievale.
    • Physiognomy -- History -- To 1500.
    Carlino, Andrea.
  • The Four Seasons of Human Life: Four Anonymous Engravings from the Trent Collection (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Horstmanshoff, H. F. J., ed. Four seasons of human life: four anonymous engravings from the Trent Collection.
    • Trent Collection.
    Reznick, Jeffrey S. (Jeffrey Stephen)
  • Justice to the Maimed Soldier: Nursing, Medical Care and Welfare for Sick and Wounded Soldiers and Their Families during the English Civil Wars and Interregnum, 1642-1660 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gruber von Arni, Eric. Justice to the maimed soldier: nursing, medical care and welfare for sick and wounded soldiers and their families during the English civil wars and interregnum, 1642-1660.
    • Great Britain -- History -- Civil War, 1642-1649 -- Medical care.
    Harrison, Mark.
  • Anglo-European Science and the Rhetoric of Empire: Malaria, Opium, and British Rule in India, 1756-1895 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Winther, Paul C., 1937- Anglo-European science and the rhetoric of empire: malaria, opium, and British rule in India, 1756-1895.
    • Opium trade -- India -- History.
    Campbell, Nancy D.
  • Opioids and Pain Relief: A Historical Perspective (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Meldrum, Marcia, ed. Opioids and pain relief: a historical perspective.
    • Analgesics -- History.
    Joy, Robert J. T.
  • Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine: A Life of John Snow (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Vinten-Johansen, Peter, ed. Cholera, chloroform, and the science of medicine: a life of John Snow.
    • Snow, John, 1813-1858.
    Carter, K. Codell (Kay Codell).
  • The Doctors' Plague: Germs, Childbed Fever, and the Strange Story of Ignác Semmelweis (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nuland, Sherwin B. Doctors' plague: germs, childbed fever, and the strange story of Ignác Semmelweis.
    • Semmelweis, Ignác Fülöp, 1818-1865.
    Cassedy, James H.
  • Lewis and Clark: Doctors in the Wilderness (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Paton, Bruce C. Lewis and Clark: doctors in the wilderness.
    • Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806)
    Wood, Peter H.
  • Working Cures: Healing, Health, and Power on Southern Slave Plantations (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fett, Sharla M. Working cures: healing, health, and power on southern slave plantations.
    • Healing -- Southern States -- History.
    Kaplan, Justin.
  • Mark Twain and Medicine: "Any Mummery Will Cure" (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ober, K. Patrick. Mark Twain and medicine: "any mummery will cure".
    • Twain, Mark, 1835-1910 -- Knowledge -- Medicine.
    Sohn, Anton P. (Anton Phillip)
  • Soldier, Surgeon, Scholar: The Memoirs of William Henry Corbusier, 1844-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Corbusier, William Henry, 1844-1930. Soldier, surgeon, scholar: the memoirs of William Henry Corbusier, 1844-1930.
    • Wooster, Robert, 1956-, ed.
    • Corbusier, William Henry, 1844-1930.
    Brieger, Gert H.
  • Out of the Dead House: Nineteenth-Century Women Physicians and the Writing of Medicine (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wells, Susan. Out of the dead house: nineteenth-century women physicians and the writing of medicine.
    • Women physicians -- United States.
    Rosario, Vernon A.
  • Solitary Sex: A Cultural History of Masturbation (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Laqueur, Thomas Walter. Solitary sex: a cultural history of masturbation.
    • Masturbation -- History.
    Reumann, Miriam G.
  • The Gilded Age Construction of Modern American Homophobia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hatheway, Jay. Gilded Age construction of modern American homophobia.
    • Homophobia -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Raftery, Judith Rosenberg.
  • A Voice for Mothers: The Plunket Society and Infant Welfare, 1907-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bryder, Linda. Voice for mothers: the Plunket Society and infant welfare, 1907-2000.
    • Royal New Zealand Plunket Society -- History.
    Parascandola, John.
  • Science at the Borders: Immigrant Medical Inspection and the Shaping of the Modern Industrial Labor Force (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fairchild, Amy L. Science at the borders: immigrant medical inspection and the shaping of the modern industrial labor force.
    • Immigrants -- Medical examinations -- United States.
    Morman, Edward T.
  • With a Dauntless Spirit: Alaska Nursing in Dog-Team Days (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Graham, Effie A., ed. With a dauntless spirit: Alaska nursing in dog-team days.
    • Pflaum, Jackie, ed.
    • Nord, Elfrida, ed.
    • Nurses -- Alaska -- Biography.
    Deacon, Harriet.
  • Health, Power and Politics in Windhoek, Namibia, 1915-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wallace, Marion. Health, power and politics in Windhoek, Namibia, 1915-1945.
    • Social medicine -- Namibia -- History.
    Weiss, Sheila Faith.
  • Deutsche Medizin im Dritten Reich: Karrieren vor und nach 1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Klee, Ernst. Deutsche Medizin im Dritten Reich: Karrieren vor und nach 1945.
    • Medicine -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
    Calmes, Selma Harrison.
  • Careers in Anesthesiology: Autobiographical Memoirs. Vol. 6 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McGoldrick, Kathryn E., ed. Careers in anesthesiology: autobiographical memoirs.
    • Anesthesiologists -- Biography.
    Conrad, Peter.
  • A New History of Identity: A Sociology of Medical Knowledge (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Armstrong, David, 1947 June 3- New history of identity: a sociology of medical knowledge.
    • Social medicine.
    Gilman, Sander L.
  • The Pursuit of Perfection: The Promise and Perils of Medical Enhancement (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rothman, Sheila M. Pursuit of perfection: the promise and perils of medical enhancement.
    • Rothman, David J.
    • Medical innovations -- Social aspects.
    Winslade, William J.
  • Death Is That Man Taking Names: Intersections of American Medicine, Law, and Culture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Burt, Robert, 1939- Death is that man taking names: intersections of American medicine, law, and culture.
    • Death.
    Holtzman, Neil A. (Neil Anton).
  • Public Health and the Risk Factor: A History of an Uneven Medical Revolution (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rothstein, William G. Public health and the risk factor: a history of an uneven medical revolution.
    • Health risk assessment -- History.
    Fox, Daniel M.
  • The Political Life of Medicare: American Politics and Political Economy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Oberlander, Jonathan. Political life of medicare: American politics and political economy.
    • Medicare -- Political aspects -- United States.

Book Notes

    Packard, Randall M.
    Bylebyl, Jerome J.
    Brieger, Gert H.
    Abrams, Susan L.
  • Book Notes
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cowen, David L. Pharmacopoeias and related literature in Britain and America, 1618-1847.
    • Hillam, Christine, ed. Dental practice in Europe at the end of the eighteenth century.
    • Walter, Jennifer K. (Jennifer Kay), 1976-, ed. Story of bioethics: from seminal works to contemporary explorations.
    • Klein, Eran P. (Eran Patrick), ed.

Books Received

Contributors

Subject and Author Index

Index to Volume 78




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