This paper places in multiple contexts Stahl's formulation of tonic motion, a contractive and relaxative movement of body tissues that was thought to moderate the circulatory blood flowing through their porous structure. The paper analyzes Stahl's theory, elucidates its role in connecting his physiology and pathology, and situates its formulation in his conceptual development as well as the intellectual history of early modern medicine. The theory was at first a post-Harveyan attempt to explain occasional uneven blood flows; it was then expanded to account for the mechanism of blood circulation and metabolism, and formed a fundamental part of Stahl's effort to present a theory of animal heat and fever that would replace the traditional Galenic and fermentational theories. Tonic motion constituted the most important device that counteracted the ineluctable, unceasing corruption of the body, as dictated by its chemical nature; it thus qualified as the preeminent form of what Stahl considered vital motions.
Stahl, Georg Ernst; tonic motion; blood circulation; metabolism; fever; early modern medicine
Medical policy -- Japan -- History -- 20th century.
Soldiers -- Mental health services -- Political aspects -- Japan -- History -- 20th century.
Military psychiatry -- Japan -- History -- 20th century.
World War, 1939-1945 -- Casualties -- Japan.
World War, 1939-1945 -- Japan -- Psychological aspects.
This article explores the politics of Japanese wartime medical policy, demonstrating how state propaganda about the people and their armed forces influenced authoritative views on health and what might endanger it. By focusing on the obstacles faced by psychiatrists trying to promote more official concern for mental health issues, it challenges the validity of figures indicating a low incidence of psychological trauma among the country's soldiers. Civilian psychiatrists had to contend with the threat of censorship and arrest for even discussing war-induced mental disorders; at the same time, army psychiatrists as military insiders were pressured to convince their patients that their conditions were not serious and did not merit compensation. While discussing the neglected topic of Japanese psychiatric casualties, an attempt is made to provide a comparative approach by referring to the state of military psychiatry in other national settings.
Japan, psychiatry, wartime casualties, thought control, strategic planning
Cancer -- United States -- Mortality -- History -- 20th century.
Children -- United States -- Mortality -- History -- 20th century.
On 30 June 1947, after a fifteen-month illness, seventeen-year-old Johnny Gunther died from a rare brain tumor. In Death Be Not Proud, Johnny's father, noted journalist John Gunther, meticulously recorded the exhaustive hunt for therapeutic options he and his ex-wife pursued during their son's illness. In "A Word from Frances," a short section written by Johnny's mother, she reflected upon her relationship with her son and his untimely death. The inclusion of Johnny's letters and diary entries helped to preserve Johnny's voice after his death and, consequently, to personify one young cancer sufferer and his family. In the 1940s, when cancer was identified as a leading cause of childhood mortality, Johnny and the best-selling memoir helped raise cancer awareness, especially about young sufferers. However, thousands of letters sent from across the country attested to the broader impact of the Gunthers' poignant story. Letters from parents demonstrated that cancer, childhood illness, and death threatened two ideals of postwar America: unlimited biomedical progress, and the child-centered family.
cancer, childhood cancer, death, child, family, illness narrative, postwar America
This article concerns the events in Toronto during June 1921 that led to the discovery of insulin and the controversy that followed. It draws attention to the hitherto unnoticed participation of E. C. Noble in the early lab work on dog 386 between 17 June and 26 June 1921. None of the accounts of the discovery of insulin written by the principal discoverers, Frederick Banting, Charles Best, J. B. Collip, and J. J. R. Macleod, acknowledge Noble's participation in the lab. The fact of his participation has several implications worth noting, as they refine the history of the discovery of insulin—not the least of which is the demonstration of his credentials as a reliable witness to the lab environment in which the first successes were achieved. He remains the only participant in the discovery whose account of the insulin project has not been published; this article includes Noble's anniversary account of 1971.
Insulin, discovery of; Banting, Sir Frederick Grant; Best, Charles H.; Noble, E. Clark; diabetes; Bliss, Michael; Macleod, J. J. R.; Collip, J. B.
Horstmanshoff, H. F. J., ed. Four seasons of human life: four anonymous engravings from the Trent Collection.
Reznick, Jeffrey S. (Jeffrey Stephen)
Justice to the Maimed Soldier: Nursing, Medical Care and Welfare for Sick and Wounded Soldiers and Their Families during the English Civil Wars and Interregnum, 1642-1660 (review) [Access article in HTML][Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Gruber von Arni, Eric. Justice to the maimed soldier: nursing, medical care and welfare for sick and wounded soldiers and their families during the English civil wars and interregnum, 1642-1660.
Great Britain -- History -- Civil War, 1642-1649 -- Medical care.