Yellow fever -- Treatment -- United States -- History.
In 1793, during a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia, Benjamin Rush adopted a therapy that centered on rapid depletion through purgation and bleeding. His method, especially his reliance on copious bloodletting, was at first widely condemned, but many American practitioners eventually adopted it. Although the therapy struck many observers as being radical, in large part it grew from premises that had substantial support. Rush was convinced that it worked and that heroic methods were the key to conquering disease. In particular, massive bleeding became central to his therapeutics.
Benjamin Rush, yellow fever, bloodletting, therapeutics
Smallpox -- Treatment -- Canada, Western -- History.
Smallpox -- Canada, Western -- Prevention -- History.
Hudson's Bay Company -- History.
Indians of North America -- Health and hygiene -- Canada, Western -- History.
Public health -- Canada, Western -- History.
During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the Hudson's Bay Company served as a de facto public health agency across western Canada. Among its biggest challenges was combating the smallpox epidemics that periodically threatened the Aboriginal people of the region. Initially, the Company's employees turned to quarantine over variolation in order to prevent the spread of the disease to Hudson Bay in the summer of 1782. Although well thought-out, ultimately this policy proved unsuccessful. Within thirty years the HBC had turned to the newly discovered vaccination, a strategy that was to prove far more effective in fighting the disease. By the late 1830s the Company was able to mount an effective vaccination campaign that covered much of western Canada.
smallpox; quarantine; vaccination; Aboriginal people; Indians; epidemic; fur trade; Hudson's Bay Company; public health; western Canada
Euthanasia -- Law and legislation -- Ohio -- History -- 20th century.
Euthanasia -- Law and legislation -- Iowa -- History -- 20th century.
This essay seeks to chronicle the controversy surrounding euthanasia that came to a head in the United States around 1906, and to situate that debate in a meaningful historical context. An extensive examination of newspaper coverage of the legislative proposals to legalize the practice in Ohio and Iowa reveals that (1) the discourse occurred in a context in which both supporters and opponents of euthanasia generally agreed that the practice already occurred with frequency; (2) the discussion was heavily influenced by a simultaneous controversy surrounding eugenics; and (3) most of the opponents of legalization relied upon practical rather than religious or moral arguments to further their cause.
euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, mercy killing, eugenics, Anna S. Hall, Dr. Walter Kempster, Iowa public health legislation, Ohio public health legislation, Charles Eliot Norton
Great Britain -- Appropriations and expenditures -- History -- 20th century.
Medical economics -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
This article aims to fill a gap in the history of medical services in England and Wales in the interwar period by focusing on the historiographically neglected municipal sector—a relative neglect that is particularly unjustified given that this sector provided an increasingly wide array of medical services over the period. Focusing on the highly urbanized county boroughs, this article investigates whether and how expenditure on municipal health services changed over the interwar period, and whether these patterns were replicated by boroughs across England and Wales. It is found that many of the largest personal health services were experiencing a common pattern of growing investment over the period, but that county boroughs did not act uniformly in their spending decisions. Considered regionally, the Northeast and the West Midlands were found to perform poorly in expenditure terms compared to the data set as a whole, while the large conurbations of Leeds, Manchester, and Liverpool raised the average performance of the Northwest and Yorkshire. Regional patterns are found to be less consistent in the south of the country, where voluntary provision and demands arising from the boroughs' geographical position (for example, seaside resorts) may have exerted significant influences over levels of expenditure on health.
municipal, health services, county borough, expenditure, Local Government Act