Bulletin of the History of Medicine

Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Volume 77, Number 3, Fall 2003


Contents

Articles

    Rosenberg, Charles E.
  • What Is Disease?: In Memory of Owsei Temkin
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    Subject Headings:
    • Temkin, Owsei, 1902-
    • Diseases -- Social aspects.
    Abstract:
      This essay outlines a contextual approach to disease (and thus medicine) in society. The work of Owsei Temkin is retrospectively evaluated and shown to rest on an assumed (if often implicit) contextualism. The key components of historical contextualism are then articulated, including the historicity of disease, the reification of specific disease categories in terms of language and social practice, and finally, in contemporary society, the value placed on diagnosis, the bureaucratization of disease, and a logically consistent focus on boundary management and boundary disputes. It is a contextualism that demands a role for the biological as well as the cultural, for practice as well as pathological theory.
    Keywords:
      boundaries, bureaucracy, contextualism, disease, Owsei Temkin, Ludwick Fleck, social construction
    Logan, Gabriella Berti.
  • Women and the Practice and Teaching of Medicine in Bologna in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries
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    Subject Headings:
    • Women in medicine -- Italy -- Bologna -- History.
    • Medical education policy -- Italy -- Bologna -- History.
    • Women -- Italy -- Bologna -- Social conditions.
    Abstract:
      When Bologna's political and intellectual elites had control over the university and associated institutions during the eighteenth century, a few women were allowed to participate in medical fields not typically associated with their gender. Laura Bassi could occasionally teach and debate on anatomy at the university, and the practical anatomist Anna Morandi Manzolini could make contributions to the research and teaching of anatomy. With the arrival of the French in Bologna in 1796, the control of the university and associated institutions passed from the local elite to the Ministry of Public Instruction in Milan. This article shows that a few women were awarded degrees in medicine, surgery, and pharmacy from the University of Bologna when the French were in control—however, these women, unlike Bassi and Morandi, were directed to fields deemed appropriate to their gender, such as the training of midwives, or apothecary practice within female institutions.
    Keywords:
      Bologna, medicine and women's contributions, eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries
    Weisz, George.
  • The Emergence of Medical Specialization in the Nineteenth Century
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    Subject Headings:
    • Medicine -- Specialties and specialists -- France -- Paris -- History -- 19th century.
    • Medicine -- Specialties and specialists -- England -- London -- History -- 19th century.
    • Medical education -- France -- Paris -- History -- 19th century.
    • Medical education -- England -- London -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      This essay reexamines the nineteenth-century origins of medical specialization. It suggests that by the 1880s, specialization had become perceived as a necessity of medical science as a result of the realization of two preconditions: First, a new collective desire to expand medical knowledge prompted clinical researchers to specialize; only specialization, it was believed, permitted the rigorous observation of many cases. Second, administrative rationality suggested that one could best manage large populations through proper classification, gathering together individuals belonging to the same class and separating those belonging to different categories. Both of these conditions emerged first and most powerfully in early nineteenth-century Paris. They were, in contrast, uniquely underdeveloped in the fragmented medical community of London during this period.
    Keywords:
      medical specialization, medical profession, medical education, clinical research, nineteenth-century Paris, nineteenth-century London
    Peitzman, Steven J. (Steven Jay), 1945-
  • Why Support a Women's Medical College? Philadelphia's Early Male Medical Pro-Feminists
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    Subject Headings:
    • Women physicians -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- History -- 19th century.
    • Medical education -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- History -- 19th century.
    • Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania -- History.
    Abstract:
      The male founders and early faculty of Philadelphia's Woman's Medical College were mostly abolitionist physicians, zealous moralists for whom medical feminism formed only one of the cherished causes they could "manfully" and righteously defend. Male faculty of the late nineteenth century comprised "self-made" men, mostly new specialists, for whom strict sexism probably seemed inconsistent with progressive medicine. For some of these physicians—obviously a small minority—defending medical women and breaking the barriers of fraternity could be consistent with "manly" responsibility. The outcome of the collaboration of women and the dissident men physicians in nineteenth-century Philadelphia amounted to another seeming paradox: the majority of the male medical profession, both locally and nationally, tyrannically hindered women's entry into the profession, yet medicine opened its doors in advance of law and the clergy; and where this first occurred, such as in the community centered on Woman's Medical College, a novel gender rearrangement arose based on collaboration and friendship.
    Keywords:
      women physicians, medical education, masculinity, Philadelphia, gender
    Mitman, Gregg.
  • Hay Fever Holiday: Health, Leisure, and Place in Gilded-Age America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hay fever -- Social aspects -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    • Leisure -- Health aspects -- White Mountains (N.H. and Me.) -- History -- 19th century.
    • Climatotherapy -- White Mountains (N.H. and Me.) -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      By the 1880s hay fever (also called June Cold, Rose Cold, hay asthma, hay cold, or autumnal catarrh) had become the pride of America's leisure class. In mid-August each year, thousands of sufferers fled to the White Mountains of New Hampshire, to the Adirondacks in upper New York State, to the shores of the Great Lakes, or to the Colorado plateau, hoping to escape the dreaded seasonal symptoms of watery eyes, flowing nose, sneezing fits, and attacks of asthma, which many regarded as the price of urban wealth and education. Through a focus on the White Mountains as America's most fashionable hay fever resort in the late nineteenth century, this essay explores the embodied local geography of hay fever as a disease. The sufferers found in the White Mountains physical relief, but also a place whose history affirmed their social identity and shaped their relationship to the natural environment. And, they, in turn, became active agents in shaping the geography of place: in the very material relationships of daily life, in the social contours of the region, and in the symbolic space that nature inhabited. In the consumption of nature for health and pleasure, this article suggests, lies an important, yet relatively unexplored, source for understanding changing perceptions of environment and place and the impact of health on the local and regional transformation of the North American landscape.
    Keywords:
      climatotherapy, hay fever, leisure, nature conservation, tourism, wilderness, place
    Waddington, Keir, 1970-
  • "Unfit for Human Consumption": Tuberculosis and the Problem of Infected Meat in Late Victorian Britain
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tuberculosis in cattle -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century.
    • Tuberculosis -- Transmission -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century.
    • Public health -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      By the 1890s, questions about tuberculous meat in Britain served to transform the issue of infected meat from an ill-defined to a concrete threat. Veterinarians, building on European inoculation (or transmission) experiments, played a prominent part in constructing the debate, with medical officers of health following. With the emergence of bacteriology in the 1880s, a consensus emerged about the dangers of tuberculous meat: Robert Koch's identification of the tubercle bacillus in 1882, and the connection he saw between bovine tuberculosis and the disease in man, provided confirmation of the disease's danger to man. It was from this point that veterinary and public health interests diverged. Whereas a general agreement had been reached, the extent of the problem remained open to doubt. Confusion revolved around two issues: the localization of infection, and the question of cooking. The latter was thought to make tuberculous meat "safe," as attention shifted to the problem of milk; whereas the former frustrated efforts to combat the sale of meat showing signs of infection.
    Keywords:
      bovine tuberculosis, tuberculosis, meat, public health, food safety
    Savitt, Todd Lee, 1943-
  • American Association for the History of Medicine: Report of the Seventy-sixth Annual Meeting
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    Subject Headings:
    • American Association for the History of Medicine. Meeting (76th : 2003 : Boston, Mass.)
    • Medicine -- History -- Congresses.

Book Reviews

    Van Arsdall, Anne, 1939-
  • Heilkunde und Hochkultur. I: Geburt, Seuche und Traumdeutung in den antiken Zivilisationen des Mittelmeerraumes (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Karenberg, Axel, 1957-, ed. Heilkunde und Hochkultur.
    • Leitz, Christian, Ph. D., ed.
    • Medicine, Ancient -- History.
    Pfister, Rudolf.
  • Zwischen Heil und Heilung: Zur frühen Tradition des Yangsheng in China (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stein, Stephan. Zwischen Heil und Heilung: zur frühen Tradition des Yangsheng in China.
    • Health behavior -- China -- History.
    Nutton, Vivian.
  • Death on the Nile: Disease and the Demography of Roman Egypt (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Scheidel, Walter, 1966- Death on the Nile: disease and the demography of Roman Egypt.
    • Diseases -- Egypt -- History.
    Konert, J. (Jürgen)
  • Geschichte der Medizinischen Fakultät Greifswald: Geschichte der Medizinischen Fakultät von 1456 bis 1713 von Christoph Helwig D.J., und das Dekanatsbuch der Medizinischen Fakultät von 1714 bis 1823 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Helwig, Christoph, 1679-1714. Geschichte der Medizinischen Fakultät Greifswald: Geschichte der Medizinischen Fakultät von 1456 bis 1713 von Christoph Helwig D.J., und das Dekanatsbuch der Medizinischen Fakultät von 1714 bis 1823.
    • Thümmel, Hans Georg, tr.
    • Universität Greifswald. Medizinische Fakultät.
    Giglioni, Guido.
  • The Mechanization of the Heart: Harvey and Descartes (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fuchs, Thomas, 1958- Mechanization of the heart: Harvey and Descartes.
    • Grene, Marjorie Glicksman, 1910-, tr.
    • Cardiology -- History -- 17th century.
    Furdell, Elizabeth Lane.
  • Royal Poxes and Potions: The Lives of Court Physicians, Surgeons and Apothecaries (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lamont-Brown, Raymond, 1939- Royal poxes and potions: the lives of court physicians, surgeons and apothecaries.
    • Medicine -- Great Britain -- History.
    Fass, Paula S.
  • Infanticide: Historical Perspectives on Child Murder and Concealment, 1550-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jackson, Mark, 1959-, ed. Infanticide: historical perspectives on child murder and concealment, 1550-2000.
    • Infanticide -- Great Britain -- History.
    Fye, Bruce.
  • The Eighteenth-Century Origins of Angina Pectoris: Predisposing Causes, Recognition and Aftermath (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Michaels, Leon. Eighteenth-century origins of Angina Pectoris: predisposing causes, recognition and aftermath.
    • Angina pectoris -- History.
    Weiner, Dora B.
  • Aux portes de la psychiatrie: Pinel, l'Ancien et le Moderne (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pigeaud, Jackie. Aux portes de la psychiatrie: Pinel, l'Ancien et le Moderne.
    • Psychiatry -- France -- History.
    Piver, Kenneth S.
  • Outside the Walls of the Asylum: The History of Care in the Community, 1750-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bartlett, Peter, ed. Outside the walls of the asylum: the history of care in the community, 1750-2000.
    • Wright, David, 1965-, ed.
    • Psychiatric hospital care -- Great Britain -- History.
    Hardy, Anne, Dr.
  • Health Care and Poor Relief in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Northern Europe (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Grell, Ole Peter, ed. Health care and poor relief in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century northern Europe.
    • Cunningham, Andrew, Dr., ed.
    • Jütte, Robert, ed.
    • Medical care -- Europe, Northern -- History -- 18th century.
    Sappol, Michael.
  • Twice Dead: Organ Transplants and the Reinvention of Death (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lock, Margaret M. Twice dead: organ transplants and the reinvention of death.
    • Transplantation of organs, tissues, etc. -- Japan.
    Mohr, James C.
  • A Traffic of Dead Bodies: Anatomy and Embodied Social Identity in Nineteenth-Century America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sappol, Michael. Traffic of dead bodies: anatomy and embodied social identity in nineteenth-century America.
    • Dead -- Social aspects -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Medley, Nancy.
  • Embryos in Wax: Models from the Ziegler Studio, with a Reprint of "Embryological Wax Models," by Friedrich Ziegler (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hopwood, Nick. Embryos in wax: models from the Ziegler studio, with a reprint of "Embryological wax models," by Friedrich Ziegler.
    • Ziegler, Friedrich, 1860-1936.
    • Embryology -- History.
    Jacyna, L. S.
  • Networking: Communicating with Bodies and Machines in the Nineteenth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Otis, Laura, 1961- Networking: communicating with bodies and machines in the nineteenth century.
    • Telecommunication -- History -- 19th century.
    Kingsland, Sharon E.
  • Making Sense of Life: Explaining Biological Development with Models, Metaphors, and Machines (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Keller, Evelyn Fox, 1936- Making sense of life: explaining biological development with models, metaphors, and machines.
    • Developmental biology.
    Reznick, Jeffrey S. (Jeffrey Stephen)
  • Artificial Parts, Practical Lives: Modern Histories of Prosthetics (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ott, Katherine, ed. Artificial parts, practical lives: modern histories of prosthetics.
    • Serlin, David, ed.
    • Mihm, Stephen, ed.
    • Prosthesis -- History.
    Verbrugge, Martha H.
  • Shameless: The Visionary Life of Mary Gove Nichols (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Silver-Isenstadt, Jean L. Shameless: the visionary life of Mary Gove Nichols.
    • Nichols, Mary Sargeant Gove, 1810-1884.
    Provost, Thomas T.
  • The Hospital on Seminary Ridge at the Battle of Gettysburg (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dreese, Michael A., 1963- Hospital on Seminary Ridge at the Battle of Gettysburg.
    • Gettysburg, Battle of, Gettysburg, Pa., 1863.
    Nuland, Sherwin B.
  • Doctors and Discoveries: Lives That Created Today's Medicine (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Simmons, John G., 1949- Doctors and discoveries: lives that created today's medicine.
    • Physicians -- Biography.
    Hanlon, C. Rollins.
  • Evarts A. Graham: The Life, Lives, and Times of the Surgical Spirit of St. Louis (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mueller, Charles Barber, 1917- Evarts A. Graham: the life, lives, and times of the surgical spirit of St. Louis.
    • Graham, Evarts Ambrose, 1883-
    Lerner, Barron H.
  • Bathsheba's Breast: Women, Cancer, and History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Olson, James Stuart, 1946- Bathsheba's breast: women, cancer, and history.
    • Breast -- Cancer -- History.
    Leavitt, Judith Walzer.
  • Giving Birth in Canada, 1900-1950 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mitchinson, Wendy. Giving birth in Canada, 1900-1950.
    • Childbirth -- Canada -- History -- 20th century.
    Schultheiss, D. (Dirk)
  • Vom Steinschnitt zur Nierentransplantation: Ein medizinhistorischer Rückblick auf die Entwicklung der Urologie (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Konert, Jürgen. Vom Steinschnitt zur Nierentransplantation: ein medizinhistorischer Rückblick auf die Entwicklung der Urologie.
    • Urology -- History.
    Porter, Dorothy, 1953-
  • Municipal Medicine: Public Health in Twentieth-Century Britain, and: Body and City: Histories of Urban Public Health (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Welshman, John. Municipal medicine: public health in twentieth-century Britain.
    • Sheard, Sally, ed. Body and city: histories of urban public health.
    • Power, Helen J., 1966-, ed.
    • Public health -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
    • Public health -- History.
    Jones, Greta.
  • Cleansing Rural Dublin: Public Health and Housing Initiatives in the South Dublin Poor Law Union, 1880-1920 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cullen, Frank, 1964- Cleansing rural Dublin: public health and housing initiatives in the South Dublin Poor Law Union, 1880-1920.
    • Public welfare -- Ireland -- Dublin -- History.
    Hähner-Rombach, Sylvelyn, 1959-
  • Sozialhygiene und pragmatische Gesundheitspolitik in der Weimarer Republik am Beispiel des Sozial- und Gewerbehygienikers Benno Chajes (1880-1938) (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Weder, Heinrich. Sozialhygiene und pragmatische Gesundheitspolitik in der Weimarer Republik am Beispiel des Sozial- und Gewerbehygienikers Benno Chajes (1880-1938)
    • Chajes, Benno, 1880-1938.
    McCulloch, Jock, 1945-
  • The Way from Dusty Death: Turner and Newall and the Regulation of Occupational Health in the British Asbestos Industry, 1890s-1970 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bartrip, P. W. J. (Peter W. J.) Way from dusty death: Turner and Newall and the regulation of occupational health in the British asbestos industry, 1890s-1970.
    • Asbestos industry -- Health aspects -- Great Britain.
    Slater, Leo Barney, 1963-
  • The Fever Trail: In Search of the Cure for Malaria (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Honigsbaum, Mark. Fever trail: in search of the cure for malaria.
    • Malaria -- History.
    Rothstein, William G.
  • The Word as Scalpel: A History of Medical Sociology (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bloom, Samuel William, 1921- Word as scalpel: a history of medical sociology.
    • Social medicine -- United States -- History.
    Dupree, Marguerite.
  • Regenerating England: Science, Medicine, and Culture in Inter-War Britain (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lawrence, Christopher, 1947-, ed. Regenerating England: science, medicine, and culture in inter-war Britain.
    • Mayer, Anna-K., ed.
    • Medicine -- History -- Great Britain -- 20th century.
    Fox, Daniel M.
  • Doctors and Reformers: Discussion and Debate over Health Policy, 1925-1950 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Engel, Jonathan. Doctors and reformers: discussion and debate over health policy, 1925-1950.
    • Medical policy -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Wagner, P. D. (Peter D.)
  • Attitudes on Altitude: Pioneers of Medical Research in Colorado's High Mountains (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Reeves, John T., ed. Attitudes on altitude: pioneers of medical research in Colorado's high mountains.
    • Grover, Robert F., 1924-, ed.
    • Altitude, Influence of -- Research -- Colorado -- History.
    Lindee, M. Susan.
  • From Biological Warfare to Healthcare: Porton Down, 1940-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hammond, Peter M., 1956- From biological warfare to healthcare: Porton Down, 1940-2000.
    • Carter, G. B.
    • Centre for Applied Microbiology & Research (Great Britain)
    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle.
  • Culpa y coraje: Historia de las políticas sobre el VIH/Sida en el Perú (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cueto, Marcos. Culpa y coraje: historia de las políticas sobre el VIH/Sida en el Perú.
    • AIDS (Disease) -- Government policy -- Peru.
    De Vries, Raymond G.
  • Een weloverwogen dood: Euthanasie in Nederland (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kennedy, James. Een weloverwogen dood: euthanasie in Nederland.
    • Euthanasia -- Netherlands.



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