Bulletin of the History of Medicine

Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Volume 77, Number 2, Summer 2003


Contents

Articles

    Leavitt, Judith Walzer.
  • What Do Men Have to Do with It? Fathers and Mid-Twentieth-Century Childbirth
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    Subject Headings:
    • Childbirth -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Fathers -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article addresses the role of fathers during the births of their children, focusing on the United States in the mid-twentieth century when childbirth was a highly medicalized, in-hospital experience for the large majority of American women. It puts this period into the perspective of changing birth practices over time, and, using sources rich in the voices of all birth participants, especially the fathers-to-be, traces some significant changes in hospital practices. Specifically examined are men's feelings and activities while their wives were in labor and delivery, and their participation in decisions about labor induction, anesthesia, and cesarean section. In contrast to earlier writings of the author, this essay puts men at the center of some of the changes identified.
    Keywords:
      fathers, childbirth, mid-twentieth-century hospital births, labor and delivery
    Shapin, Steven.
  • Trusting George Cheyne: Scientific Expertise, Common Sense, and Moral Authority in Early Eighteenth-Century Dietetic Medicine
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cheyne, George, 1673-1743.
    • Dietetics -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century.
    • Richardson, Samuel, 1689-1761 -- Health.
    • Huntingdon, Selina Hastings, Countess of, 1707-1791 -- Health.
    • Physician and patient -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century.
    Abstract:
      Whenever physicians give directions to patients there is always a question of their authority to do so: what is it that they know, and who is it that they are, that gives them this authority? The problem is fully general, but it takes especially interesting forms in early modern dietetics, where patients were reckoned to possess much pertinent and reliable knowledge, and where medical dietetics occupied terrain already densely occupied by moral prudence. This article addresses these issues in relation to the writings and practice of George Cheyne (1671-1743), iatromechanist, dietary writer, and fashionable physician. Special attention is given to the relation between Cheyne's scientific expertise and the texture of the advice he gave to two patients, the printer and novelist Samuel Richardson and Selina, countess of Huntingdon.
    Keywords:
      dietetics, physician-patient relations, authority, expertise, common sense
    Rousseau, G. S. (George Sebastian)
    Haycock, David Boyd, 1968-
  • Coleridge's Choleras: Cholera Morbus, Asiatic Cholera, and Dysentery in Early Nineteenth-Century England
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    Subject Headings:
    • Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 1772-1834 -- Health.
    • Gastroenteritis -- Patients -- England.
    • Dysentery -- Patients -- England.
    • Cholera -- Patients -- England.
    Abstract:
      Samuel Taylor Coleridge suffered from a variety of bowel disorders throughout his life; though a large part of his ailment was caused by his famous opium habit, he continuously sought an organic origin, and on at least two separate occasions, in 1804 and 1831-32, he ascribed his disorders to attacks of "cholera." With Asiatic cholera apparently first reaching England in late 1831, there was considerable argument among both physicians and the general public as to whether it was a distinctly new disease, or merely a severer variation of traditional English cholera, known as "cholera morbus." Coleridge took a particular interest in these discussions. In this paper, we attempt to establish the exact nature of his attacks of illness, and point to the complexities of describing and framing new diseases and bowel disorders in the early nineteenth century.
    Keywords:
      Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Asiatic cholera, English cholera, cholera morbus, dysentery, opium, nineteenth-century Britain, epidemics, bowel disorders, framing disease
    Dracobly, Alex.
  • Ethics and Experimentation on Human Subjects in Mid-Nineteenth-Century France: The Story of the 1859 Syphilis Experiments
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ricord, Ph., 1800-1889.
    • Gibert, C.-M. (Camille Melchior), 1797-1866.
    • Auzias-Turenne, Dr., 1812-1870.
    • Syphilis -- Research -- France -- History -- 19th century.
    • Human experimentation in medicine -- Moral and ethical aspects -- France -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      This article examines a series of experiments involving the deliberate infection of human subjects with syphilis that were performed in Paris in 1859 by Dr. Camille Gibert and Dr. Joseph Alexandre Auzias-Turenne. Using the scientific literature on syphilis, the contemporary reaction in the French medical press to Gibert's and Auzias-Turenne's experiments, and the private papers of Auzias-Turenne, this paper places these experiments within a context of scientific and professional rivalry, and seeks to show how both moral and scientific concerns shaped and limited experimental practices in mid-nineteenth-century France.
    Keywords:
      Philippe Ricord, Camille Gibert, Auzias-Turenne, syphilis, nineteenth-century France, experimentation on human subjects, medical ethics, syphilization
    Afkhami, Amir.
  • Compromised Constitutions: The Iranian Experience with the 1918 Influenza Pandemic
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    Subject Headings:
    • Influenza -- Iran -- History -- 20th century.
    • Epidemics -- Iran -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      The global demographic impact of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic continues to fascinate researchers and scholars. This paper examines the social and demographic effects of this outbreak on Iranian society, through a comprehensive investigation of the modes of transmission and propagation, mortality rates, and other distinctive features of the region, and reveals the importance of taking a country's unique sociopolitical settings into account. Iran was one of the regions hit hardest by the pandemic, with mortality rates significantly higher than in most regions of the world. Though globally the victims of influenza lived primarily in urban areas, it was Iran's rural regions that suffered the most casualties. In addition, contrary to the prevailing notion that the 1918 influenza targeted the young and healthy, this paper suggests that famine, opium consumption, malaria, and anemia were fundamentally responsible for the high mortality in Iran.
    Keywords:
      Iran, influenza, pandemic, mortality, 1918, malaria, anemia, opium
    Fragu, Philippe.
  • How the Field of Thyroid Endocrinology Developed in France after World War II
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    Subject Headings:
    • Thyroid gland -- Diseases -- Diagnosis -- France -- History -- 20th century.
    • Thyroid gland -- Diseases -- Treatment -- France -- History -- 20th century.
    • Endocrinology -- France -- History -- 20th century.
    • Biochemistry -- France -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This microhistory analyzes the transformation of French medical practice after World War II. Before the 1940s, coordinated clinical and experimental studies on a patient with thyroid disease were nonexistent. Starting in 1945, thyroid endocrinology was pushed forward by the use of radioiodine, which led pediatricians to rethink the hereditary transmission of thyroid diseases, stimulated by the school of biochemistry headed by Jean Roche, who participated in the elucidation of thyroid-hormone metabolism. Roche knew how to listen to hospital clinicians, who, in return, gave him free access to patients to conduct investigations on thyroid metabolism. Radioiodine proved to be sufficiently flexible to respond to the respective information needs of clinicians and biochemists, and was also responsible for the profound transformation of scientific reasoning: the chemical framework that had dominated thyroid studies since the discovery of thyroid iodine (1896) was replaced by the hormone paradigm.
    Keywords:
      twentieth-century France, biomedicine, thyroid diseases, clinical endocrinology, biochemistry, radioiodine, innate metabolic errors

Book Reviews

    Pormann, Peter E.
  • Der Fehltritt des Gelehrten: Die "Pest von Emmaus" und ihre theologischen Nachspiele (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ess, Josef van. Fehltritt des Gelehrten: die "Pest von Emmaus" und ihre theologischen Nachspiele.
    • Epidemics -- Syria -- History -- To 1500.
    Demaitre, Luke E., 1935-
  • La búsqueda de la salud: Sanadores y enfermos en la España medieval (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • García Ballester, Luis. Búsqueda de la salud: sanadores y enfermos en la España medieval.
    • Medicine -- Spain -- History.
    Riddle, John M.
  • The History of Medications for Women: Materia medica woman (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • O'Dowd, Michael J. History of medications for women: materia medica woman.
    • Materia medica -- History.
    Harlow, Siobán D.
  • Regulating Menstruation: Beliefs, Practices, Interpretations (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Van de Walle, Etienne, 1932-, ed. Regulating menstruation: beliefs, practices, interpretations.
    • Renne, Elisha P., ed.
    • Menstruation -- Cross-cultural studies.
    Solomon, Julie Robin.
  • Fictions of Disease in Early Modern England: Bodies, Plagues, and Politics (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Healy, Margaret, 1955- Fictions of disease in early modern England: bodies, plagues, and politics.
    • English literature -- Early modern, 1500-1700 -- History and criticism.
    Nutton, Vivian.
  • Logic, Signs and Nature in the Renaissance: The Case of Learned Medicine (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Maclean, Ian, 1945- Logic, signs and nature in the Renaissance: the case of learned medicine.
    • Medicine -- Europe -- Philosophy -- History -- 16th century.
    Dawbarn, Frances.
  • The Royal Doctors, 1485-1714: Medical Personnel at the Tudor and Stuart Courts (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Furdell, Elizabeth Lane. Royal doctors, 1485-1714: medical personnel at the Tudor and Stuart courts.
    • Physicians -- England -- History -- 16th century.
    Jordanova, L. J.
  • Turquet de Mayerne as Baroque Physician: The Art of Medical Portraiture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nance, Brian. Turquet de Mayerne as baroque physician: the art of medical portraiture.
    • Mayerne, Théodore Turquet de, Sir, 1573-1655.
    Williams, Elizabeth A. (Elizabeth Ann), 1950-
  • La médecine à Genève jusqu'à la fin du dix-huitième siècle (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gautier, Léon, 1832-1897. Médecine à Genève jusqu'à la fin du dix-huitième siècle.
    • Medicine -- Switzerland -- Geneva -- History.
    Joy, Robert J. T.
  • Surgeons at War: Medical Arrangements for the Treatment of the Sick and Wounded in the British Army during the Late Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kaufman, Matthew H. Surgeons at war: medical arrangements for the treatment of the sick and wounded in the British Army during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
    • Great Britain. Army -- Medical care -- History -- 18th century.
    Scull, Andrew T.
  • Medicine and Magnificence: British Hospital and Asylum Architecture, 1660-1815 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stevenson, Christine. Medicine and magnificence: British hospital and asylum architecture, 1660-1815.
    • Hospital architecture -- Great Britain -- History.
    Weiner, Dora B.
  • L'avènement de la médecine clinique moderne en Europe, 1750-1815: Politiques, institutions et savoirs (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Keel, Othmar. Avènement de la médecine clinique moderne en Europe, 1750-1815: politiques, institutions et savoirs.
    • Clinical medicine -- Europe -- History -- 18th century.
    Lieberman, E. James, 1934-
  • The Nature of Melancholy: From Aristotle to Kristeva (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Radden, Jennifer, ed. Nature of melancholy: from Aristotle to Kristeva.
    • Melancholy.
    Schiller, Francis, 1909-
  • The Legend of Nietzsche's Syphilis (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schain, Richard J. Legend of Nietzsche's syphilis.
    • Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1844-1900 -- Mental health.
    Valier, Helen.
  • Charity and the London Hospitals, 1850-1898 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Waddington, Keir, 1970- Charity and the London hospitals, 1850-1898.
    • Hospitals -- England -- London -- History -- 19th century.
    Murdoch, Lydia.
  • Mental Disability in Victorian England: The Earlswood Asylum, 1847-1901 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wright, David, 1965- Mental disability in Victorian England: the Earlswood Asylum, 1847-1901.
    • Earlswood Asylum -- History.
    Dwyer, Ellen.
  • Remembrance of Patients Past: Patient Life at the Toronto Hospital for the Insane, 1870-1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Reaume, Geoffrey, 1962- Remembrance of patients past: patient life at the Toronto Hospital for the Insane, 1870-1940.
    • Toronto Hospital for the Insane -- History.
    Hudson, Robert.
  • The Persisting Osler III: Selected Transactions of the American Osler Society, 1991-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Barondess, Jeremiah A., 1924-, ed. Persisting Osler III: selected transactions of the American Osler Society, 1991-2000.
    • Roland, Charles G., ed.
    • Osler, William, Sir, 1849-1919 -- Congresses.
    Bynum, W. F. (William F.), 1943-
  • Pavlov's Physiology Factory: Experiment, Interpretation, Laboratory Enterprise (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Todes, Daniel Philip. Pavlov's physiology factory: experiment, interpretation, laboratory enterprise.
    • Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich, 1849-1936.
    Söderqvist, Thomas.
  • Paul Ehrlich's Receptor Immunology: The Magnificent Obsession (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Silverstein, Arthur M. Paul Ehrlich's receptor immunology: the magnificent obsession.
    • Ehrlich, Paul, 1854-1915.
    Risse, Guenter B., 1932-
  • Contagious Divides: Epidemics and Race in San Francisco's Chinatown (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shah, Nayan, 1966- Contagious divides: epidemics and race in San Francisco's Chinatown.
    • Chinese Americans -- Health and hygiene -- California -- (Chinatown) San Francisco -- History.
    Ernst, Waltraud, 1955-
  • Madness, Cannabis, and Colonialism: The "Native Only" Lunatic Asylums of British India, 1857-1900 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mills, James H., 1970- Madness, cannabis, and colonialism: the "native only" lunatic asylums of British India, 1857-1900.
    • Mental illness -- India -- Treatment -- History -- 19th century.
    Packard, Randall M., 1945-
  • Black Death, White Medicine: Bubonic Plague and the Politics of Public Health in Colonial Senegal, 1914-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Echenberg, Myron J. Black death, white medicine: bubonic plague and the politics of public health in colonial Senegal, 1914-1945.
    • Plague -- Social aspects -- Senegal -- History -- 20th century.
    Fairman, Julie.
  • They Called Them Angels: American Military Nurses of World War II (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jackson, Kathi, 1951- They called them angels: American military nurses of World War II.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Medical care -- United States.
    Weindling, Paul.
  • Der Sozialmediziner Ludwig Teleky (1872-1957) und die Entwicklung der Gewerbehygiene zur Arbeitsmedizin (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wulf, Andreas. Sozialmediziner Ludwig Teleky (1872-1957) und die Entwicklung der Gewerbehygiene zur Arbeitsmedizin.
    • Teleky, Ludwig, 1872-1957.
    Molony, Barbara.
  • Minamata: Pollution and the Struggle for Democracy in Postwar Japan (review) [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • George, Timothy S. Minamata: pollution and the struggle for democracy in postwar Japan.
    • Mercury -- Toxicology -- Japan -- Minamata-shi -- History -- 20th century.
    George, Timothy S.
  • Rowing the Eternal Sea: The Story of a Minamata Fisherman (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Oiwa, Keibo. Rowing the eternal sea: the story of a Minamata fisherman.
    • Ogata, Masato, 1953-
    • Colligan-Taylor, Karen, tr.
    • Mercury -- Toxicology.
    Morman, Edward T.
  • Effluent America: Cities, Industry, Energy, and the Environment (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Melosi, Martin V., 1947- Effluent America: cities, industry, energy, and the environment.
    • Sociology, Urban -- United States.
    Hanlon, C. Rollins.
  • Machines in Our Hearts: The Cardiac Pacemaker, the Implantable Defibrillator, and American Health Care (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jeffrey, Kirk. Machines in our hearts: the cardiac pacemaker, the implantable defibrillator, and American health care.
    • Cardiac pacing -- History.
    Sadowsky, Jonathan Hal.
  • Pushbutton Psychiatry: A History of Electroshock in America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kneeland, Timothy W., 1962- Pushbutton psychiatry: a history of electroshock in America.
    • Warren, Carol A. B., 1944-
    • Electroconvulsive therapy -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Culliton, Barbara J.
  • Ahead of the Curve: David Baltimore's Life in Science (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Crotty, Shane, 1974- Ahead of the curve: David Baltimore's life in science.
    • Baltimore, David.
    Cowan, Ruth Schwartz, 1941-
  • Testing Women, Testing the Fetus: The Social Impact of Amniocentesis in America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rapp, Rayna. Testing women, testing the fetus: the social impact of amniocentesis in America.
    • Amniocentesis -- Social aspects -- United States.
    Margolis, Simeon, 1931-
  • Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nestle, Marion. Food politics: how the food industry influences nutrition and health.
    • Nutrition policy -- United States.
    Widdershoven, Guy, 1954-
  • Medizinethik und Kultur: Grenzen medizinischen Handelns in Deutschland und den Niederlanden (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gordijn, Bert, 1965-, ed. Medizinethik und Kultur: Grenzen medizinischen Handelns in Deutschland und den Niederlanden.
    • Have, H. ten, ed.
    • Medical ethics -- Germany.



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