Bulletin of the History of Medicine

Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Volume 76, Number 4, Winter 2002



Contents

Articles

    Hernández Sáenz, Luz María, 1952-
  • Matters of Life and Death: The Hospital of San Pedro in Puebla, 1790-1802
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hospital de San Pedro (Puebla, Mexico) -- History -- 18th century.
    • Hospital care -- Mexico -- Puebla -- History -- 18th century.
    • Medical personnel and patient -- Mexico -- Puebla -- History -- 18th century.
    Abstract:
      The last decade of the eighteenth century may be described as a "golden age" in the history of the Hospital of San Pedro of Puebla. Under the stewardship of its director, Father Ignacio Domenech, San Pedro underwent an extensive renovation of its physical plant and a thorough administrative reorganization that turned it into one of the best medical care and research institutions in New Spain. This article draws a profile of the patients who filled the hospital's wards and adds a human dimension to the many names and ailments listed in the registries. It also describes the valiant efforts of the medical staff who daily shared the patients' struggle against illness. Fighting immense odds, the practitioners sought to provide good-quality care and to further their limited understanding of disease. A detailed analysis of San Pedro's everyday life reveals a portrait of human suffering, professional dedication, and humanity's pursuit of knowledge.
    Keywords:
      hospital, patients, practitioners, eighteenth-century therapies, colonial medicine, colonial Mexico
    Gelfand, Toby, 1942-
  • 11 January 1887, the Day Medicine Changed: Joseph Grancher's Defense of Pasteur's Treatment for Rabies
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    Subject Headings:
    • Grancher, Joseph, 1843-1907 -- Correspondence.
    • Pasteur, Louis, 1822-1895 -- Correspondence.
    • Rabies -- Treatment -- France -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      The Pasteur treatment for rabies is generally seen in terms of a triumphant penetration of laboratory science into clinical medicine. Similarly, the debates challenging the Pastorians have been interpreted as retrograde and inevitably vain efforts by a few disgruntled clinicians to resist scientific progress. This article revises the standard account by showing that the defenders of Pasteur perceived a serious threat to their enterprise and acted expeditiously to counter a potential crisis by adopting clinical strategies and tactics to argue for the relative safety of their method and to account for the rare failures resulting in deaths. An extensive unpublished source, the correspondence of Dr. Joseph Grancher with Pasteur, reveals this physician's leading role in successfully orchestrating the defense of Pasteur's antirabies method in January 1887 in the National Academy of Medicine. In responding to Dr. Michel Peter's accusations that the method could be dangerous and had been fatal in certain cases, Grancher invoked notions of risk inherent in all medical therapy, along with individual variability and predisposition to disease. Grancher's unpublished correspondence, supplemented by other manuscript letters, permits a textured understanding of the urgency experienced by Pasteur's team and their interactions as they worked out a strategy to defend their pioneering entry into human medicine. The suppression of autopsy evidence in one fatal case is apparent. More important, the strategy of the Pastorians implied a complementarity between the "clinic" and laboratory science, rather than any opposition.
    Keywords:
      rabies, clinical medicine, Joseph Grancher, Louis Pasteur, Michel Peter, French National Academy of Medicine, nineteenth-century Paris
    Bodó, Béla.
  • The Medical Examination and Biological Selection of University Students in Nazi Germany
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    Subject Headings:
    • College students -- Medical examinations -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
    • National socialism and medicine -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
    • National socialism and education -- History -- 20th century.
    • Racism -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article looks at the history of the medical inspection and biological selection of students in the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. It discusses the emergence of regular medical inspection of various social groups, including students, in the 1920s and explains why the Nazis were so eager to make health inspections—complete with anthropological and racial surveys—an integral part of the admission process to German universities. It examines why certain individuals, mainly young physicians, complied with the Nazi laws and why others, such as female and fraternity students, older and established physicians in the university clinics, and university administrators, sought to sabotage the procedures. Finally, it explains the failure of biological selection on university campuses in the context of the evolving educational and social policies of the Nazi regime.
    Keywords:
      students, physicians, universities, racism, biological selection, eugenics, medical inspection, expulsion from universities
    Jones, David Shumway.
  • The Health Care Experiments at Many Farms: The Navajo, Tuberculosis, and the Limits of Modern Medicine, 1952-1962
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    Subject Headings:
    • Navajo Indians -- Diseases -- Navajo Indian Reservation -- History -- 20th century.
    • Tuberculosis -- Navajo Indian Reservation -- History -- 20th century.
    • Navajo Indians -- Medical care -- Navajo Indian Reservation -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      In January 1952 a team of medical researchers from Cornell Medical College learned that tuberculosis raged untreated on the Navajo Reservation in Arizona. These researchers, led by Walsh McDermott, recognized a valuable opportunity for medical research, and they began a ten-year project to evaluate the efficacy of new antibiotics and test the power of modern medicine to improve the health conditions of an impoverished rural society. The history of this endeavor exposes a series of tensions at the heart of medical research and practice. Researchers exploited the opportunities made possible by the ill-health of a marginalized population, but did so with the cooperation and gratitude of the Navajo. They introduced new antibiotics that liberated patients from hospitals, but erected an intrusive system of outpatient surveillance. They provided innovative health-care services, but failed to reduce the dominant causes of morbidity and mortality. As every act of treatment became an experiment, they risked undermining the trust on which research and clinical care depended.
    Keywords:
      tuberculosis, antibiotics, Navajo, Indian Health Service, Walsh McDermott, Many Farms, research, efficacy, compliance

Netnotes: Medical History on the Internet

Book Reviews

    Woodward, Hiram W.
  • Medicine in China: Historical Artifacts and Images (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Unschuld, Paul U. (Paul Ulrich), 1943- Medicine in China: historical artifacts and images.
    • Medicine, Chinese.
    Hanson, Ann Ellis.
  • Death and Disease in the Ancient City (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hope, Valerie M., 1968-, ed. Death and disease in the ancient city.
    • Marshall, Eireann, 1967-, ed.
    • Medicine, Greek and Roman.
    Byl, Simon.
  • Der Begriff der Physis bei Galen vor dem Hintergrund seiner Vorgänger (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kovacic, Franjo. Begriff der Physis bei Galen vor dem Hintergrund seiner Vorgänger.
    • Galen.
    Horden, Peregrine.
  • At the Dawn of Modernity: Biology, Culture, and Material Life in Europe after the Year 1000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Levine, David, 1946- At the dawn of modernity: biology, culture, and material life in Europe after the year 1000.
    • Civilization, Medieval.
    Adamson, Peter.
  • Averroes: A Rationalist in Islam (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Arnaldez, Roger. Averroes: a rationalist in Islam.
    • Streight, David, tr.
    • Averroës, 1126-1198 -- Views on Islam.
    Demaitre, Luke E., 1935-
  • Natura sit nobis semper Magistra: Über den Umgang mit Patienten, die Diät bei akuten Erkrankungen, Sterilität von Mann und Frau, Augenleiden; Vier mittelalterliche Schriften (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Grensemann, Hermann, ed. Natura sit nobis semper magistra: über den Umgang mit Patienten, die Diät bei akuten Erkrankungen, Sterilität von Mann und Frau, Augenleiden; vier mittelalterliche Schriften.
    • Medicine, Medieval.
    McVaugh, M. R. (Michael Rogers), 1938-
  • Canonical Medicine: Gentile da Foligno and Scholasticism (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • French, R. K. (Roger Kenneth) Canonical medicine: Gentile da Foligno and scholasticism.
    • Gentilis Fulginas, d. 1348.
    Eden, Trudy A. (Trudy Ann), 1952-
  • Subject Matter: Technology, the Body, and Science on the Anglo-American Frontier, 1500-1676 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Chaplin, Joyce E. Subject matter: technology, the body, and science on the Anglo-American frontier, 1500-1676.
    • North America -- History -- Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775.
    Nye, Robert A.
  • Tortured Subjects: Pain, Truth, and the Body in Early Modern France (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Silverman, Lisa. Tortured subjects: pain, truth, and the body in early modern France.
    • Torture -- France -- History.
    Wear, A. (Andrew), 1946-
  • The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: Religion, War, Famine and Death in Reformation Europe (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cunningham, Andrew, Dr. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: religion, war, famine and death in Reformation Europe.
    • Grell, Ole Peter.
    • Europe -- History -- 1517-1648.
    Principe, Lawrence.
  • The Ecstatic Journey: Athanasius Kircher in Baroque Rome (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rowland, Ingrid D. (Ingrid Drake) Ecstatic journey: Athanasius Kircher in Baroque Rome.
    • Kircher, Athanasius, 1602-1680 -- Exhibitions.
    Cook, Harold John.
  • Médecins de fortune et d'infortune: Des aventuriers français en Inde au XVIIe siècle: témoins et témoignages (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Valence, Françoise de. Médecins de fortune et d'infortune: des aventuriers français en Inde au XVIIe siècle: témoins et témoignages.
    • Medicine -- India -- History -- 17th century.
    Gilman, Sander L.
  • Undertaker of the Mind: John Monro and Mad-Doctoring in Eighteenth-Century England (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Andrews, Jonathan, 1961- Undertaker of the mind: John Monro and mad-doctoring in eighteenth-century England.
    • Monro, John, 1715-1791.
    Kushner, Howard I.
  • Autism in History: The Case of Hugh Blair of Borgue (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Houston, R. A. (Robert Allan), 1954- Autism in history: the case of Hugh Blair of Borgue.
    • Frith, Uta.
    • Blair, Hugh 1708-1765.
    Helfand, William H.
  • Bodies Politic: Disease, Death, and Doctors in Britain, 1650-1900 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Porter, Roy, 1946- Bodies politic: disease, death, and doctors in Britain, 1650-1900.
    • Medicine -- Great Britain -- History.
    Lawlor, Clark.
  • British Romanticism and the Science of the Mind (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Richardson, Alan, 1955- British Romanticism and the science of the mind.
    • English literature -- 19th century -- History and criticism.
    Gilman, Sander L.
  • Physiognomy and the Meaning of Expression in Nineteenth-Century Culture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hartley, Lucy. Physiognomy and the meaning of expression in nineteenth-century culture.
    • Physiognomy -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century.
    Giglioni, Guido.
  • La chimica e le tecnologie chimiche nel Veneto dell '800 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bassani, Angelo, ed. Chimica e le tecnologie chimiche nel Veneto dell '800.
    • Chemistry -- Italy -- Venice -- History -- 19th century -- Congresses.
    Mifflin, Jeffrey.
  • Tarnished Idol: William Thomas Green Morton and the Introduction of Surgical Anesthesia: A Chronicle of the Ether Controversy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wolfe, Richard J. Tarnished idol: William Thomas Green Morton and the introduction of surgical anesthesia: a chronicle of the ether controversy.
    • Morton, W. T. G. (William Thomas Green), 1819-1868.
    Savitt, Todd Lee, 1943-
  • No One Ailing Except a Physician: Medicine in the Mining West, 1848-1919 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Smith, Duane A. No one ailing except a physician: medicine in the mining West, 1848-1919.
    • Medicine -- West (U.S.) -- History -- 19th century.
    Bryan, Charles S.
  • Osler's "A Way of Life" and Other Addresses, with Commentary and Annotations (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Osler, William, Sir, 1849-1919. Osler's "a way of life" and other addresses, with commentary and annotations.
    • Hinohara, Shigeaki, 1911-, ed.
    • Niki, Hisae, ed.
    • Medicine.
    Sandelowski, Margarete.
  • Say Little, Do Much: Nurses, Nuns, and Hospitals in the Nineteenth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nelson, Sioban. Say little, do much: nurses, nuns, and hospitals in the nineteenth century.
    • Nursing -- Religious aspects -- Christianity.
    Morman, Edward T.
  • No Place Like Home: A History of Nursing and Home Care in the United States (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Buhler-Wilkerson, Karen. No place like home: a history of nursing and home care in the United States.
    • Home nursing -- History.
    Blustein, Bonnie Ellen.
  • Women in Labor: Mothers, Medicine, and Occupational Health in the United States, 1890-1980 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hepler, Allison L. Women in labor: mothers, medicine, and occupational health in the United States, 1890-1980.
    • Women -- Employment -- Health aspects -- United States -- History.
    Wilson, Philip K., 1961-
  • Breeding Better Vermonters: The Eugenics Project in the Green Mountain State (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gallagher, Nancy L., 1949- Breeding better Vermonters: the eugenics project in the Green Mountain State.
    • Eugenics -- Vermont -- History.
    Weindling, Paul.
  • Otto Weininger: Sex, Science, and Self in Imperial Vienna (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sengoopta, Chandak. Otto Weininger: sex, science, and self in imperial Vienna.
    • Weininger, Otto, 1880-1903.
    Sengoopta, Chandak.
  • Castration: An Abbreviated History of Western Manhood (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Taylor, Gary, 1953- Castration: an abbreviated history of western manhood.
    • Castration anxiety.
    Lieberman, E. James, 1934-
  • Romantic Science and the Experience of Self: Transatlantic Crosscurrents from William James to Oliver Sacks (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Halliwell, Martin. Romantic science and the experience of self: transatlantic crosscurrents from William James to Oliver Sacks.
    • Self -- History -- 20th century.
    Sappol, Michael.
  • In Therapy We Trust: America's Obsession with Self-Fulfillment (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Moskowitz, Eva S. In therapy we trust: America's obsession with self-fulfillment.
    • Social problems -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Carmichael, Ann G.
  • Traumatic Pasts: History, Psychiatry, and Trauma in the Modern Age, 1870-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Micale, Mark S., 1957-, ed. Traumatic pasts: history, psychiatry, and trauma in the modern age, 1870-1930.
    • Lerner, Paul Frederick, ed.
    • Psychic trauma -- History.
    Harris, Benjamin.
  • To Redeem One Person Is to Redeem the World: The Life of Frieda Fromm-Reichmann (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hornstein, Gail A., 1951- To redeem one person is to redeem the world: the life of Frieda Fromm-Reichmann.
    • Fromm-Reichmann, Frieda.
    Breeden, James O.
  • Malaria: Poverty, Race, and Public Health in the United States (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Humphreys, Margaret, 1955- Malaria: poverty, race, and public health in the United States.
    • Malaria -- United States -- History.
    Whorton, James C., 1942-
  • War and Nature: Fighting Humans and Insects with Chemicals from World War I to "Silent Spring" (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Russell, Edmund, 1957- War and nature: fighting humans and insects with chemicals from World War I to "Silent spring."
    • Chemical warfare -- Environmental aspects -- History.
    Fye, Bruce.
  • Walter B. Cannon: Science and Society (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wolfe, Elin L. Walter B. Cannon: science and society.
    • Barger, A. Clifford, 1917-
    • Benison, Saul.
    • Cannon, Walter B. (Walter Bradford), 1871-1945.
    Kater, Michael H., 1937-
  • Ärztliche Standespolitik im Nationalsozialismus: Julius Hadrich und Karl Haedenkamp als Beispiele (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schwoch, Rebecca. Ärztliche Standespolitik im Nationalsozialismus: Julius Hadrich und Karl Haedenkamp als Beispiele.
    • Hadrich, Julius.
    Hughes, Sally Smith.
  • Operators and Promoters: The Story of Molecular Biology and Its Creators (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Echols, Harrison. Operators and promoters: the story of molecular biology and its creators.
    • Gross, Carol, ed.
    • Molecular biology -- History.
    Bledsoe, Caroline H.
  • A Plague of Paradoxes: AIDS, Culture, and Demography in Northern Tanzania (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Setel, Philip. Plague of paradoxes: AIDS, culture, and demography in northern Tanzania.
    • AIDS (Disease) -- Tanzania.
  • Book Notes
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hay, David, 1931- Flickering lamp: a history of the Sydenham Medical Club (1775-2000)
    • Reeds, Karen. State of health: New Jersey's medical heritage.
    • Franklin, Sarah, 1960-, ed. Relative values: reconfiguring kinship studies.
    • McKinnon, Susan, 1949-, ed.
    Clausen, Carol.
  • Subject and Author Index Volume 76
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bulletin of the history of medicine -- Indexes.



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