Bulletin of the History of Medicine

Bulletin of the History of Medicine 76.3, Fall 2002

Contents

Articles

    Weaver, Karol K. (Karol Kimberlee)
  • The Enslaved Healers of Eighteenth-Century Saint Domingue
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    Subject Headings:
    • Healers -- Haiti -- History -- 18th century.
    • Slaves -- Haiti -- History -- 18th century.
    • Traditional medicine -- Haiti -- History -- 18th century.
    Abstract:
      Enslaved healers including herbalists, kaperlatas, hospitalières, infirmières, and accoucheuses existed and flourished in the medical world of Saint Domingue. They were responsible for the creation of an indigenous form of medicine on the island. Using Western, African, and Caribbean remedies, they treated their fellow slaves and white residents of the island. Slaves were more comfortable and more familiar with the care and techniques employed by the popular healers, especially the kaperlatas and the herbalists. Plantation managers took advantage of the labor of female medical workers in order to reap economic profits for their planter employers and for themselves. Lower-class whites, unable to afford and unwilling to consult mainstream medical care, sought the assistance of healers known as kaperlatas. Lastly, orthodox medical practitioners turned to slave healers, especially herbalists, to exploit the therapeutic knowledge that the slaves possessed and, in the case of enslaved midwives, to bring them more closely under the authority of European medical men.
    Keywords:
      eighteenth-century Saint Domingue, healers, slaves, indigenous medicine, herbalists, colonial medicine, plantations
    Ryan, Joseph G.
  • The Chapel and the Operating Room: The Struggle of Roman Catholic Clergy, Physicians, and Believers with the Dilemmas of Obstetric Surgery, 1800-1900
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    Subject Headings:
    • Craniotomy -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    • Cesarean section -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    • Medicine -- Religious aspects -- Catholic Church -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      By 1800, the Roman Catholic Church and organized medicine faced the dilemma of how to resolve cases of obstructed births. American physicians usually practiced destructive operations, like craniotomy, in an attempt to save the lives of mothers. The church allowed such operations after the death of the infant. A new technique of surgery, the cesarean operation, offered hope that both patients would survive childbirth. Medical progress, and an emerging Catholic belief that the fetus was human, prompted Catholic physicians to advocate the new operation, and stirred a renewed debate among European theologians on the propriety of craniotomy. In America, the broad Christian tradition promoted by the Catholic Church began to inform medicine on the moral and ethical parameters of surgery. American physicians, for their part, engaged in their own debate on the propriety of the cesarean operation. This article, focusing on the cesarean debate, reveals the intersections of Catholicism and medical progress amid the growth of obstetric surgery from 1800 to 1900.
    Keywords:
      Catholic Church, craniotomy, cesarean, surgery, obstetrics, mothers, childbirth
    Wexler, Alice
  • Chorea and Community in a Nineteenth-Century Town
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    Subject Headings:
    • Huntington's chorea -- New York (State) -- East Hampton -- History -- 19th century.
    • Huntington's chorea -- Patients -- New York (State) -- East Hampton -- Social conditions -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      The dominant historical narrative of Huntington's disease (Huntington's chorea) has portrayed the early American sufferers from this disorder as marginalized and vilified. This article argues, however, that afflicted families in East Hampton, New York—the site of George Huntington's mid-nineteenth-century observations—were mostly accepted and integrated within the community, some of them as members of the gentry and active participants in local governance. As descendants of early English settlers in this multiracial town, these white Presbyterian families, some of whose members were afflicted with what was locally called "St. Vitus's dance" or "that disorder," were always defined as "one of ours." While this fatal inherited neurological illness became more secret and hidden toward the end of the nineteenth century, this article suggests that it was larger cultural and social changes, rather than factors intrinsic to the disease, that led to the shift. The East Hampton story suggests the ways in which specific historical circumstances in a community may shape the social meanings of even so severe a disease as Huntington's, and that social integration of the afflicted families may have helped mitigate the suffering of the disease.
    Keywords:
      Huntington's chorea, Huntington's disease, St. Vitus's dance, magrums, megrims, East Hampton, George Huntington, disability studies
    Carter, K. Codell (Kay Codell).
  • Early Conjectures That Down Syndrome Is Caused by Chromosomal Nondisjunction
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    Subject Headings:
    • Down syndrome -- Genetic aspects -- History -- 20th century.
    • Down syndrome -- Etiology -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      In 1959, cytologic studies demonstrated that Down syndrome was associated with a nondisjunction now known as trisomy 21. Twenty years earlier (1932-39), at least three writers conjectured, independently of one another, that Down syndrome might be a form of nondisjunction: Petrus J. Waardenburg (1932), Adrien Bleyer (1934), and G. Fanconi (1938). In separate papers, Raymond Turpin (1937), Walter E. Southwick (1939), and Lionel S. Penrose (1939) also proposed that Down syndrome could be a chromosomal anomaly, but without specifying nondisjunction. However, these conjectures were largely ignored by contemporary medical writers. This essay (1) explores the background and context of early conjectures that Down syndrome is a form of nondisjunction, (2) provides some possible reasons why these conjectures were not given greater credence, and (3) traces early efforts to assimilate Down syndrome and other genetic disorders to what Robert Koch called the etiologic standpoint.
    Keywords:
      Down syndrome, etiology, chromosomal disorders, genetic diseases, Petrus J. Waardenburg, Adrien Bleyer, G. Fanconi, Raymond Turpin, Lionel S. Penrose, Walter E. Southwick

Book Reviews

    Nutton, Vivian.
  • "On Second Thought" and Other Essays in the History of Medicine and Science (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Temkin, Owsei, 1902- "On second thought" and other essays in the history of medicine and science.
    • Medicine -- History.
    Ziegler, Joseph.
  • Medicine in a Multicultural Society: Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Practitioners in the Spanish Kingdoms, 1222-1610 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • García Ballester, Luis. Medicine in a multicultural society: Christian, Jewish, and Muslim practitioners in the Spanish kingdoms, 1222-1610.
    • Medicine -- Spain -- History.
    Vidal, Fernando.
  • Psyche and Soma: Physicians and Metaphysicians on the Mind-Body Problem from Antiquity to Enlightenment (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wright, John P., ed. Psyche and soma: physicians and metaphysicians on the mind-body problem from Antiquity to Enlightenment.
    • Potter, Paul, 1944-, ed.
    • Mind and body -- History.
    Demaitre, Luke E.
  • Fasiculo de medicina in volgare, Venezia, Giovanni e Gregorio De Gregori, 1494 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pesenti Marangon, Tiziana, ed. Fasiculo de medicina in volgare, Venezia, Giovanni e Gregorio De Gregori, 1494.
    • Medicine -- Manuscripts -- Facsimiles.
    Walton, Michael Thomson.
  • Der Frühparacelsismus, part 1, Corpus Paracelsisticum, vol. 1 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kühlmann, Wilhelm, 1946-, ed. Frühparacelsismus.
    • Telle, Joachim, ed.
    • Parcelsus, 1493-1541.
    Brown, Kenneth A.
  • The Mexican Treasury: The Writings of Dr. Francisco Hernández, and: Searching for the Secrets of Nature: The Life and Works of Dr. Francisco Hernández (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hernández, Francisco, 1517-1587. Mexican treasury: the writings of Dr. Francisco Hernández.
    • Varey, Simon, 1951-, ed.
    • Chabrán, Rafael, tr.
    • Chamberlin, Cynthia L., tr.
    • Varey, Simon, 1951-, ed. Searching for the secrets of nature: the life and works of Dr. Francisco Hernández.
    • Chabrán, Rafael, ed.
    • Weiner, Dora B., ed.
    • Natural history -- Mexico -- Pre-Linnean works.
    • Hernández, Francisco, 1517-1587.
    Wilson, Lindsay B. (Lindsay Blake)
  • Récit véritable de la naissance des messeigneurs et dames les enfans de France, Instruction à ma fille, et autre textes (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Boursier, Louise Bourgeois, ca. 1563-1636. Récit véritable de la naissance des messeigneurs et dames les enfans de France, Instruction à ma fille, et autre textes.
    • Rouget, François, ed.
    • Winn, Colette H., ed.
    • Medicine -- Early works to 1800.
    Wilson, Renate.
  • Pietismus, Medizin und Aufklärung in Preussen im 18. Jahrhundert: Das Leben und Werk Georg Ernst Stahls (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Geyer-Kordesch, Johanna. Pietismus, Medizin und Aufklärung in Preussen im 18. Jahrhundert: das Leben und Werk Georg Ernst Stahls.
    • Stahl, Georg Ernst, 1660-1734.
    Risse, Guenter B..
  • Die Eroberung der Gesundheit, 1750-1900: Aus dem Französischen von Andrea van Dülmen (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hudemann-Simon, Calixte. Eroberung der Gesundheit, 1750-1900: aus dem Französischen von Andrea van Dülmen.
    • Medicine -- Europe -- History.
    Gilman, Sander L.
  • Doctor's Orders: Goethe and Enlightenment Thought (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tobin, Robert Deam. Doctor's orders: Goethe and Enlightenment thought.
    • Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749-1832. Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre.
    Lawrence, Christopher.
  • A Social History of Medicine: Health, Healing and Disease in England, 1750-1950 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lane, Joan. Social history of medicine: health, healing and disease in England, 1750-1950.
    • Medicine -- England -- History.
    Scull, Andrew T.
  • "Cure, Comfort and Safe Custody": Public Lunatic Asylums in Early Nineteenth-Century England (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Smith, Leonard D., 1947- "Cure, comfort and safe custody": public lunatic asylums in early nineteenth-century England.
    • Psychiatric hospital care -- England -- History -- 19th century.
    Winkelstein, Warren.
  • The Eradication of Smallpox: Edward Jenner and the First and Only Eradication of a Human Infectious Disease (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bazin, H. Eradication of smallpox: Edward Jenner and the first and only eradication of a human infectious disease.
    • Morgan, Andrew, tr.
    • Morgan, Glenise, tr.
    • Jenner, Edward, 1749-1823.
    Frost, Richard H.
  • Rotting Face: Smallpox and the American Indian (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robertson, Roland. Rotting face: smallpox and the American Indian.
    • Smallpox -- United States -- History.
    Jones, David S.
  • Tobacco Use by Native North Americans: Sacred Smoke and Silent Killer (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Winter, Joseph C., ed. Tobacco use by Native North Americans: sacred smoke and silent killer.
    • Indians of North America -- Tobacco use.
    Christianson, Eric Howard.
  • America's Botanico-Medical Movements: Vox Populi (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Berman, Alex, 1914- America's botanico-medical movements: vox populi.
    • Flannery, Michael A., 1953-
    • Medicine, Botanic -- United States -- History.
    Haller, John S.
  • Historical Aspects of Unconventional Medicine: Approaches, Concepts, Case Studies (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jütte, Robert, ed. Historical aspects of unconventional medicine: approaches, concepts, case studies.
    • Eklöf, Motzi, ed.
    • Nelson, Marie C., ed.
    • Alternative medicine -- Congresses.
    Power, Helen J.
  • Imperial Medicine: Patrick Manson and the Conquest of Tropical Disease (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Haynes, Douglas Melvin. Imperial medicine: Patrick Manson and the conquest of tropical disease.
    • Manson, Patrick, Sir, 1844-1922.
    Packard, Randall M.
  • Science and Society in Southern Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dubow, Saul, ed. Science and society in Southern Africa.
    • Science -- Social aspects -- Africa, Southern.
    Wilson, Lindsay.
  • For Health and Beauty: Physical Culture for Frenchwomen, 1880s-1930s (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stewart, Mary Lynn, 1945- For health and beauty: physical culture for Frenchwomen, 1880s-1930s.
    • Women -- France -- History.
    Haynes, Roslynn D. (Roslynn Doris).
  • Vacation Stories: Five Science Fiction Tales (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ramón y Cajal, Santiago, 1852-1934. Vacation stories: five science fiction tales.
    • Otis, Laura, 1961-, tr.
    • Science fiction, Spanish.
    Madison, Donald L.
  • The Wages of Sickness: The Politics of Health Insurance in Progressive America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hoffman, Beatrix Rebecca. Wages of sickness: the politics of health insurance in progressive America.
    • Insurance, Health -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Lerner, Barron H.
  • Doing Good: The Life of Toronto's General Hospital (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Connor, James Thomas Hamilton, 1952- Doing good: the life of Toronto's General Hospital.
    • Toronto General Hospital -- History.
    Corbellini, Gilberto.
  • Measuring Mamma's Milk: Fascism and the Medicalization of Maternity in Italy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Whitaker, Elizabeth Dixon, 1962- Measuring mamma's milk: fascism and the medicalization of maternity in Italy.
    • Breast feeding -- Italy.
    Morman, Edward T.
  • An American Health Dilemma. Vol. 1, A Medical History of African Americans and the Problem of Race: Beginnings to 1900, and: Dying in the City of the Blues: Sickle Cell Anemia and the Politics of Race and Health (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Byrd, W. Michael. American health dilemma.
    • Clayton, Linda A.
    • Wailoo, Keith. Dying in the city of the blues: sickle cell anemia and the politics of race and health.
    • African Americans -- Health and hygiene -- History.
    • Sickle cell anemia -- Tennessee -- Memphis -- History.
    Young, Allan.
  • A War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists in the Twentieth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shephard, Ben, 1948- War of nerves: soldiers and psychiatrists in the twentieth century.
    • Military psychiatry -- History -- 20th century.
    Lawrence, Christopher.
  • Images of Disease: Science, Public Policy and Health in Post-war Europe (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Löwy, Ilana, 1948-, ed. Images of disease: science, public policy and health in post-war Europe.
    • Krige, John, ed.
    • Medical policy -- Europe -- History -- 20th century -- Congresses.
    Martensen, Robert.
  • The Plutonium Files: America's Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Welsome, Eileen. Plutonium files: America's secret medical experiments in the Cold War.
    • Radiation -- Toxicology -- Research -- United States.
    Benson, Keith Rodney.
  • Biologists and the Promise of American Life, from Meriwether Lewis to Alfred Kinsey (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pauly, Philip J. Biologists and the promise of American life, from Meriwether Lewis to Alfred Kinsey.
    • Biology -- United States -- History.
    Kingsland, Sharon E.
  • Good Breeding: Science and Society in a Darwinian Age (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Moore, James R. (James Richard), 1947- Good breeding: science and society in a darwinian age.
    • Eugenics.
    Allen, Garland E.
  • Who Wrote the Book of Life? A History of the Genetic Code (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kay, Lily E. Who wrote the book of life? a history of the genetic code.
    • Genetic code -- Research -- History.
    Cantor, David.
  • The Business of Medicine: The Extraordinary History of Glaxo, a Baby Food Producer, Which Became One of the World's Most Successful Pharmaceutical Companies (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jones, Edgar, 1953- Business of medicine: the extraordinary history of Glaxo, a baby food producer, which became one of the world's most successful pharmaceutical companies.
    • Glaxo Wellcome.
    Bacon, Douglas R.
  • Careers in Anesthesiology: Autobiographical Memoirs, Vol. 4, and: Careers in Anesthesiology: Autobiographical Memoirs, Vol. 5 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fink, B. Raymond, ed. Careers in anesthesiology: autobiographical memoirs.
    • McGoldrick, Kathryn E., ed.
    • Anesthesiologists -- Biography.
    Samet, Jonathan M.
  • Tobacco War: Inside the California Battles (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Glantz, Stanton A. Tobacco war: inside the California battles.
    • Balbach, Edith D., 1953-
    • Tobacco -- Law and legislation -- California.



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