Bulletin of the History of Medicine

Bulletin of the History of Medicine 76.2, Summer 2002

Contents

Articles

    Szabo, Jason.
  • Seeing is Believing? The Form and Substance of French Medical Debates over Lourdes
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    Subject Headings:
    • Harris, Ruth, 1958- Lourdes: body and spirit in the secular age.
    • Medicine -- France -- Lourdes -- Religious aspects -- Catholic Church -- History -- 19th century.
    • Spiritual healing -- France -- Lourdes -- History -- 19th century.
    • Christianity and politics -- France -- Lourdes -- Catholic Church -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      Recent works on Lourdes have tended to emphasize the positive personal, social, and spiritual aspects of a pilgrimage, while downplaying the role of religious politics in (over)determining discussions around the events taking place there over the course of the Third Republic. This paper seeks to reassert the extent to which the medical community remained divided, along religious lines, over the existence and nature of the cures taking place at Lourdes well into the twentieth century, while analyzing how Catholic physicians were able to create an aura of therapeutic credibility around the cures.
    Keywords:
      Lourdes, Ruth Harris, miraculous healing, religious politics, suggestion, hysteria, medical subjectivity
    Sinding, Christiane.
  • Making the Unit of Insulin: Standards, Clinical Work, and Industry, 1920-1925
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    Subject Headings:
    • Insulin -- United States -- Development -- History -- 20th century.
    • Insulin -- Canada -- Development -- History -- 20th century.
    • Drugs -- Law and legislation -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Drugs -- Law and legislation -- Canada -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      The standardization of insulin is generally considered by historians to have been a process conducted by physiologists under the direction of Henry Dale. This article shows that it actually involved many actors and began with the earliest administration to patients in Canada and the United States. During this first phase, the drug company Eli Lilly also contributed actively to the standardization, under the scientific direction of George Clowes. This is not to undermine the role of Dale, whose political leadership was paramount for the international phase of the standardization. His scientific contribution, however, was a continuation of previous work led by physiologists, clinicians, and pharmacists. The production and packaging of insulin in standardized units thus appears to be the result of the impressive working of a transdisciplinary and transnational network. It also highlights how new modes of drug regulation were elaborated by state bodies in the early 1920s and paved the way for more extensive reforms.
    Keywords:
      insulin, diabetes mellitus, standards, drug development, pharmaceutical industry, clinical trials, clinical standardization, drug regulation, state, market
    Temkin, Elizabeth.
  • Rooming-In: Redesigning Hospitals and Motherhood in Cold War America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Maternal health services -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Hospital utilization -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Infants (Newborn) -- Hospital care -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Rooming-in, a model of maternity care that placed newborns in their mothers' rooms instead of central nurseries, appeared in American hospitals in the early 1940s, advocated by physicians and mothers as an antidote to the emotional sterility of the modern maternity ward. It has been cited as a successful illustration of health-care reform, in which practitioners and patients redesigned postpartum care to make it more fulfilling. However, factors other than visionary leadership contributed to the establishment and popularity of rooming-in. First, wartime changes in the medical care of postpartum patients, including antibiotic therapy and early ambulation, paved the way for a system in which mothers played an active role. Second, rooming-in effectively solved two hospital crises: a nursing shortage, and an epidemic of infections in newborn nurseries. Finally, it achieved notoriety far beyond its actual prevalence because it resonated with trends in mass culture: a wariness of technology, interest in the causes and prevention of neurosis, and the "feminine mystique." This article suggests that changes in health care depend less on reasoned planning than on coincidental events inside and outside the hospital.
    Keywords:
      rooming-in, postpartum care, obstetrics, mothers, newborns, nursery
    Keating, Peter
    Cambrosio, Alberto
  • From Screening to Clinical Research: The Cure of Leukemia and the Early Development of the Cooperative Oncology Groups, 1955-1966
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    Subject Headings:
    • Leukemia -- Chemotherapy -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Clinical trials -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Biocompatibility -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Medical cooperation -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Recent work in the history and sociology of biomedicine has emphasized the novelty of the biomedical enterprise as a distinctive institutional, material, and epistemological configuration. Since World War II, biology and medicine have become such tightly intertwined research enterprises that those working in biomedicine cannot predict whether a particular research project, clinical investigation, or even clinical intervention will result in biological or medical facts. In this paper, we examine part of the process of the emergence of biomedicine by focusing on the development of clinical cancer trials in the United States in the years 1955­66, a period during which the clinical trials program run by the National Cancer Institute became autonomous from the Institute's screening program for anticancer compounds. We examine in particular the work carried out by the cooperative groups and the Acute Leukemia Task Force to which they belonged, analyzing the evolution of the relations between screening, chemotherapy, clinical trials, and clinical research.
    Keywords:
      cooperative oncology groups, clinical research, leukemia, cancer chemotherapy, National Cancer Institute, clinical trials, screening, United States

Notes and Comments

    Silverstein, Arthur M.
  • The Collected Papers of Paul Ehrlich: Why Was Volume 4 Never Published?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ehrlich, Paul, 1854-1915. Collected papers.
    • Dale, Henry H. (Henry Hallett), Sir, b. 1875.
    • Himmelweit, Fred.
    Abstract:
      In the 1950s, Sir Henry Hallett Dale undertook to compile and publish all the scientific papers of Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich. He was assisted in this venture by Dr. Fred Himmelweit and by Ehrlich's former secretary, Martha Marquardt. A four-volume series was announced, but only three volumes saw the light of day, between 1957 and 1960. This report presents the result of a five-year effort to determine the reason for the failure to complete the undertaking, in which all potential sources were pursued and queried. In the end, the mystery remains unsolved.
    Keywords:
      Paul Ehrlich, Henry Dale, Fred Himmelweit, Ehrlich's Collected Papers

Essay Review

    Lieberman, E. James
  • Psychoanalysis: Creation, Evolution, and Survival
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    Subject Headings:
    • Breger, Louis, 1931- Freud: darkness in the midst of vision.
    • Strozier, Charles B. Heinz Kohut: the making of a psychoanalyst.
    • Goggin, James E., 1940- Death of a "Jewish science": psychoanalysis in the Third Reich.
    • Goggin, Eileen Brockman, 1941-
    • Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
    • Kohut, Heinz.

Book Reviews

    Nutton, Vivian.
  • The Science of Man in Ancient Greece (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sassi, Maria Michela, 1955- Science of man in ancient Greece.
    • Tucker, Paul, tr.
    • Philosophical anthropology -- Greece -- History.
    Hanson, Ann Ellis.
  • Maladies des femmes. Vol. 4: Livre IV, et index général (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Soranus, of Ephesus. Maladies des femmes.
    • Burguière, Paul, tr.
    • Gourevitch, Danielle, tr.
    • Malinas, Y. (Yves), tr.
    • Medicine, Greek and Roman.
    Arrizabalaga, Jon.
  • Contagion: Perspectives from Pre-Modern Societies (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Conrad, Lawrence I., 1949-, ed. Contagion: perspectives from pre-modern societies.
    • Wujastyk, D., ed.
    • Communicable diseases -- History.
    Shatzmiller, Joseph.
  • The "Tabula Antidotarii" of Armengaud Blaise and Its Hebrew Translation (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Blaise, Armengaud, ca. 1264-1312? Tabula antidotarii of Armengaud Blaise and its Hebrew translation.
    • McVaugh, M. R. (Michael Rogers), 1938-, ed.
    • Ferre, Dolores, ed.
    • Medicine, Medieval.
    Miller, Timothy S.
  • The Hospitaller State on Rhodes and Its Western Provinces, 1306-1462 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Luttrell, Anthony, 1932- Hospitaller state on Rhodes and its western provinces, 1306-1462.
    • Knights of Malta -- Greece -- Rhodes (Island)
    O'Neill, Ynez Violé.
  • Women's Healthcare in the Medieval West: Texts and Contexts (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Green, Monica Helen. Women's healthcare in the medieval west: texts and contexts.
    • Medicine, Medieval -- Europe.
    Park, Katharine
  • The Place of the Dead: Death and Remembrance in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gordon, Bruce, 1962-, ed. Place of the dead: death and remembrance in late medieval and early modern Europe.
    • Marshall, Peter, 1964-, ed.
    • Funeral rites and ceremonies -- Europe -- History.
    Slack, Paul.
  • Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Scott, Susan, 1953- Biology of plagues: evidence from historical populations.
    • Duncan, C. J. (Christopher John)
    • Epidemics.
    Martensen, Robert.
  • Knowledge and Practice in English Medicine, 1550-1680 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wear, A. (Andrew), 1946- Knowledge and practice in English medicine, 1550-1680.
    • Medicine -- England -- History -- 16th century.
    Lindemann, Mary.
  • Pious Traders in Medicine: A German Pharmaceutical Network in Eighteenth-Century North America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wilson, Renate, 1930- Pious traders in medicine: a German pharmaceutical network in eighteenth-century North America.
    • Medicine -- United States -- History -- 18th century.
    Wilson, Renate
  • Das Pulver als Arzneiform: Ein Überblick über seine Entwicklung vom 18. bis 20. Jahrhundert (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jorek, Adriane. Pulver als Arzneiform: ein Überblick über seine Entwicklung vom 18. bis 20. Jahrhundert.
    • Powders (Pharmacy) -- History.
    Lesch, John E.
  • Die Entwicklung zur experimentellen Pharmakologie, 1790-1850: Wegbereiter von Rudolf Buchheim (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bickel, Marcel H. Entwicklung zur experimentellen Pharmakologie, 1790-1850: Wegbereiter von Rudolf Buchheim.
    • Pharmacology, Experimental -- History.
    Weiner, Dora B.
  • La médecine des lumières: Tout autour de Tissot (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Barras, Vincent, ed. Médecine des lumières: tout autour de Tissot.
    • Louis-Courvoisier, Micheline, 1957-, ed.
    • Tissot, S. A. D. (Samuel Auguste David), 1728-1797.
    Wilson, Philip K.
  • "To Improve the Evidence of Medicine": The Eighteenth-Century British Origins of a Critical Approach (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tröhler, Ulrich, 1943- To improve the evidence of medicine: the eighteenth-century British origins of a critical approach.
    • Medicine -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century.
    Powell, Henry Caleb.
  • Medical and Musical Byways of Mozartiana (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Simkin, Benjamin. Medical and musical byways of Mozartiana.
    • Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 1756-1791 -- Criticism and interpretation.
    Richman, Allen Martin
  • Rough Medicine: Surgeons at Sea in the Age of Sail (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Druett, Joan. Rough medicine: surgeons at sea in the age of sail.
    • Medicine, Naval -- South Pacific Ocean -- History -- 19th century.
    Jenner, Mark S. R.
  • Malthus, Medicine and Morality: "Malthusianism" after 1798 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dolan, Brian, ed. Malthus, medicine and morality: "Malthusianism" after 1798.
    • Malthus T. R. (Thomas Robert), 1766-1834.
    Hopwood, Nick.
  • Ausgewählte Briefe und Dokumente / Selected Letters and Documents (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Weismann, August, 1834-1914. Ausgewählte Briefe und Dokumente.
    • Churchill, F. B. (Frederick B.), ed.
    • Risler, Helmut, ed.
    • Weismann, August, 1834-1914 -- Correspondence.
    Berridge, Virginia.
  • Health and Medicine in Britain since 1860 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hardy, Anne, Dr. Health and medicine in Britain since 1860.
    • Medicine -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
    Marks, Harry M.
  • Deciphering Global Epidemics: Analytical Approaches to the Disease Records of World Cities, 1888-1912 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cliff, A. D. (Andrew David) Deciphering global epidemics: analytical approaches to the disease records of world cities, 1888-1912.
    • Haggett, Peter.
    • Smallman-Raynor, Matthew.
    • Epidemiology.
    Fairchild, Amy L.
  • City of Plagues: Disease, Poverty, and Deviance in San Francisco (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Craddock, Susan. City of plagues: disease, poverty, and deviance in San Francisco.
    • Epidemics -- California -- San Francisco -- History.
    Tarr, Joel A. (Joel Arthur)
  • The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Melosi, Martin V., 1947- Sanitary city: urban infrastructure in America from colonial times to the present.
    • Municipal water supply -- United States -- History.
    Lidtke, Vernon L.
  • Making Security Social: Disability, Insurance, and the Birth of the Social Entitlement State in Germany (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eghigian, Greg, 1961- Making security social: disability, insurance, and the birth of the social entitlement state in Germany.
    • Social security -- Germany -- History.
    Weindling, Paul.
  • Krankheit, Sexualität, Gesellschaft: Geschlechtskrankheiten und Gesundheitspolitik in Deutschland im 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sauerteig, Lutz. Krankheit, Sexualität, Gesellschaft: Geschlechtskrankheiten und Gesundheitspolitik in Deutschland im 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert.
    • Sexually transmitted diseases -- Germany -- History.
    Rigau Pérez, José Gabriel.
  • Historia de la enfermería de salud pública en España (1860-1977) (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bernabeu Mestre, Josep. Historia de la enfermería de salud pública en España (1860-1977)
    • Gascón Pérez, Encarna.
    • Public health nursing -- Spain -- History.
    Mohr, James C.
  • Coping with Sickness: Medicine, Law and Human Rights--Historical Perspectives (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Woodward, John, 1945- Coping with sickness: medicine, law and human rights--historical perspectives.
    • Jütte, Robert.
    • Medical laws and legislation -- Europe -- History.
    Haller, John S.
  • Biomedicine and Alternative Healing Systems in America: Issues of Class, Race, Ethnicity, and Gender (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Baer, Hans A., 1944- Biomedicine and alternative healing systems in America: issues of class, race, ethnicity, and gender.
    • Social medicine -- United States.
    Dwyer, Ellen.
  • Hearts of Wisdom: American Women Caring for Kin, 1850-1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Abel, Emily K. Hearts of wisdom: American women caring for kin, 1850-1940.
    • Caregivers -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Lieberman, E. James
  • Freud and the Institution of Psychoanalytic Knowledge (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Winter, Sarah. Freud and the institution of psychoanalytic knowledge.
    • Psychoanalysis.
    Makari, George J.
  • Freud in the Pampas: The Emergence and Development of a Psychoanalytic Culture in Argentina (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Plotkin, Mariano Ben, 1961- Freud in the Pampas: the emergence and development of a psychoanalytic culture in Argentina.
    • Psychoanalysis -- Argentina -- History -- 20th century.
    Groopman, Leonard.
  • Knowledge and Power: Perspectives in the History of Psychiatry (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Engstrom, Eric J., ed. Knowledge and power: perspectives in the history of psychiatry.
    • Weber, Matthias M., ed.
    • Hoff, Paul, 1956-, ed.
    • Psychiatry -- Europe -- History -- Congresses.
    Daniels, Roger.
  • Long Night's Journey into Day: Prisoners of War in Hong Kong and Japan, 1941-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Roland, Charles G., 1933- Long night's journey into day: prisoners of war in Hong Kong and Japan, 1941-1945.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Prisoners and prisons, Japanese.
    Herzberg, David.
  • Slaying the Dragon: The History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • White, William L., 1947- Slaying the dragon: the history of addiction treatment and recovery in America.
    • Alcoholism -- Treatment -- United States -- History.
    Berkowitz, Edward D.
  • The Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to Confrontation (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fleischer, Doris Zames. Disability rights movement: from charity to confrontation.
    • Zames, Frieda, 1932-
    • People with disabilities -- Civil rights -- United States.
    Keiner, Christine.
  • Shaping Biology: The National Science Foundation and American Biological Research, 1945-1975 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Appel, Toby A., 1945- Shaping biology: the National Science Foundation and American biological research, 1945-1975.
    • Biology -- Research -- United States -- History.
    Löwy, Ilana
  • The Story of Taxol: Nature and Politics in the Pursuit of an Anti-cancer Drug (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Goodman, Jordan. Story of taxol: nature and politics in the pursuit of an anti-cancer drug.
    • Walsh, Vivien.
    • Paclitaxel -- Research -- Political aspects -- United States.
    Hardy, Anne, Dr.
  • Medicine in the Twentieth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cooter, Roger, ed. Medicine in the twentieth century.
    • Pickstone, John V., ed.
    • Medicine -- History -- 20th century.



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