Bulletin of the History of Medicine

Bulletin of the History of Medicine 75.4, Winter 2001

Contents

Articles

    Lloyd, Josephine M.
  • The "Languid Child" and the Eighteenth-Century Man-Midwife
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    Subject Headings:
    • Infants (Newborn) -- Medical care -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century.
    • Hey, William, 1736-1819.
    • Midwives -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century.
    Abstract:
      This article addresses the methods used to preserve the life of a sickly neonate--that is, a child described as "languid" in the immediate period after birth. By looking at the work of some seventeenth-century midwifery authors, we can see how a fragile baby was handled in the period before formal training in midwifery and in the appropriate use of forceps. The article assesses the recognized causes of neonatal risk at the time of William Smellie. Examples from the manuscript midwifery case histories of William Hey, F.R.S. (1736-1819), reveal how a provincial man-midwife handled at-risk babies in domiciliary deliveries. The article also places William Hey within the wider group of eighteenth-century men-midwives and those whose work was leading them toward neonatal and infant care. Respect for life, parental love and grief, and the status of men-midwives in the last half of the eighteenth century are discussed.
    Keywords:
      sickly neonates, eighteenth-century men-midwives, forceps, respect for life
    Savitt, Todd Lee, 1943-
  • Money versus Mission at an African-American Medical School: Knoxville College Medical Department, 1895-1900
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    Subject Headings:
    • Knoxville College. Medical Dept. -- History.
    • African American physicians -- Education -- Tennessee -- Knoxville -- History.
    • Universities and colleges, Black -- Tennessee -- Knoxville -- History.
    Abstract:
      Knoxville College Medical Department (KCMD) was, to all appearances, a missionary medical school established in 1895 by a small black Presbyterian college in the Tennessee mountains to train African-American physicians. In reality, it functioned as a proprietary medical school organized and operated by a group of local white physicians who were more interested in making money than in furthering the school's mission of educating black Christian physicians. KCMD limped along until 1900 when the college's new president reported to the trustees about the white faculty's greed, irreligious behavior, poor teaching, and bad medical reputation, and about how the presence of the medical school on campus undermined the college's overall mission. KCMD graduated two students before closing its doors in 1900. A group of faculty then reopened the school off-campus as the Knoxville Medical College. That school closed in 1910.
    Keywords:
      race, African Americans, medical education, Knoxville (Tenn.), proprietary medical schools, black physicians, Henry M. Green
    Timmermann, Carsten.
  • Constitutional Medicine, Neoromanticism, and the Politics of Antimechanism in Interwar Germany
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    Subject Headings:
    • Holistic medicine -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
    • Aesthetics, German -- 20th century.
    • Medicine -- Political aspects -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      One of the defining features of interwar medical debates in German-speaking countries was the remarkable popularity of holistic concepts among both experts and the lay public. Attacks on the allegedly too-mechanistic outlook of modern medicine were frequent and were often associated with calls to research and treat the constitution of patients rather than isolated causes of disease. This paper traces the rise of the new constitutional medicine, locating its roots in nineteenth-century medical science. The essay attempts to explain the increasingly antimechanistic outlook of promoters of constitutional medicine by relating it to the larger context of the politics of health in Weimar Germany, to concerns of medical practitioners over the rise of the welfare state and the popularity of nonlicensed healers, culminating in the widespread notion of a "crisis of medicine." Drawing on case studies of, among others, the Danzig surgeon Erwin Liek and the Vienna gynecologist Bernhard Aschner, the article distinguishes between rationalist and neoromantic constitutionalists and aims to demonstrate that antimechanism in constitutional medicine was related to neoromantic tendencies in art and other realms of society, while rationalists were concerned with making German men and women fit for war and the requirements of modern industry.
    Keywords:
      Weimar Germany, crisis of medicine, constitutional medicine, antimechanism, holism, rationalization, Bernhard Aschner, Erwin Liek

Constructing History in Biography: A Symposium on William Osler: A Life in Medicine

    Lella, Joseph W., 1936-
  • Constructing History in Biography: A Symposium on William Osler: A Life in Medicine: Introduction
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    Subject Headings:
    • Osler, William, Sir, 1849-1919 -- Congresses.
    Abstract:
      William Osler's medical career spanned two centuries and three nations: Canada, the United States, and Great Britain. Though not an especially noted scientist, he was an innovative teacher, a professional organizer, and mentor and colleague to many grateful--indeed, sometimes adoring--students and colleagues, some of whom became influential in the Anglo-Saxon medical world. Since his death, Osler has been the subject of an enormous body of literature, fed by numerous Osler societies throughout the world. Among these is the American Osler Society, upon whose recent review panel this symposium is based. In it, three Oslerians--Philip Teigen, Earl Nation, and Joseph Lella--use Michael Bliss's book as the starting point for reading historical themes in Osler's life from their own standpoints. Bliss responds to these views by stressing the factual underpinnings of his book and by interpreting it, the first major biography of Osler since Cushing, in the context of his other works in the history of medicine as another study of the emergence of "health care as a secular replacement for traditional religious faith in the supernatural."
    Keywords:
      Osler, Cushing, Bliss, American Osler Society, Osler societies, constructing history, biography, late-nineteenth-early-twentieth-century medicine
    Teigen, Philip M.
  • William Osler, Again
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bliss, Michael. William Osler: a life in medicine.
    • Cushing, Harvey, 1869-1939. Life of Sir William Osler.
    • Osler, William, Sir, 1849-1919.
    Nation, Earl F., 1910-
  • Osler in Cushing and Bliss: Personal Notes of a Seasoned Oslerian
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bliss, Michael. William Osler: a life in medicine.
    • Cushing, Harvey, 1869-1939. Life of Sir William Osler.
    • Osler, William, Sir, 1849-1919.
    Bliss, Michael.
  • A Response to the Commentaries
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    Subject Headings:
    • Teigen, Philip M. William Osler, again.
    • Nation, Earl F., 1910- Osler in Cushing and Bliss: personal notes of a seasoned Oslerian.
    • Lella, Joseph W., 1936- Bliss's Osler.
    • Osler, William, Sir, 1849-1919.

Texts and Documents

    Carter, K. Codell (Kay Codell), 1939-
  • Edwin Klebs's Grundversuche
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    Subject Headings:
    • Klebs, Edwin, 1834-1913.
    • Diseases -- Causes and theories of causation.
    • Bacteria.
    Abstract:
      In 1876, discussions of the role of microorganisms in disease causation focused on anthrax and wound infections, and even in respect to these diseases there was controversy. In a series of papers on the pathologicality of bacteria, Edwin Klebs identified four "Grundversuche" (fundamental tests) that provided a basis for his own research strategy. The Grundversuche can be read as the following hypotheses: first, all bacteria are pathological; second, bacteria never occur spontaneously; third, every disease is caused only by bacteria; and fourth, the bacteria that cause distinguishable disease are distinguishable. Although some of these hypotheses are literally false, together they constitute part of a rational basis for a bacterial theory of disease, and, as such, they mark a true revolution in etiological thought.
    Keywords:
      germ theory, Klebs, bacteria, etiology, microorganisms, causation

NetNotes: Medical History on the Internet

Book Reviews

    Nutton, Vivian.
  • From Athens to Jerusalem: Medicine in Hellenized Jewish Lore and in Early Christian Literature (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kottek, Samuel S., ed. From Athens to Jerusalem: medicine in hellenized Jewish lore and in early Christian literature.
    • Medicine, Ancient.
    Demaitre, Luke E., 1935-
  • Ancients and Moderns in the Medical Sciences: From Hippocrates to Harvey (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • French, R. K. (Roger Kenneth) Ancients and moderns in the medical sciences: from Hippocrates to Harvey,
    • Medicine -- Europe -- History.
    Crellin, John D.
  • The Concept of Contagion in Medicine, Literature, and Religion (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jarcho, Saul. Concept of contagion in medicine, literature, and religion.
    • Contagion and contagious diseases -- History.
    Sivin, Nathan.
  • A Soup for the "Qan": Chinese Dietary Medicine of the Mongol Era as Seen in Hu Szu-Hui's "Yin-Shan Cheng-Yao" (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Buell, Paul D. Soup for the "Qan": Chinese dietary medicine of the Mongol era as seen in Hu Szu-Hui's "Yin-shan cheng-yao".
    • Anderson, Eugene N. (Eugene Newton), 1941-
    • Husihui. Yin shan zheng yao.
    Smoller, Laura Ackerman, 1960-
  • From the Brink of the Apocalypse: Confronting Famine, War, Plague, and Death in the Later Middle Ages (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Aberth, John, 1963- From the brink of the apocalypse: confronting famine, war, plague, and death in the later middle ages.
    • Apocalyptic literature -- History and criticism.
    Wear, A. (Andrew), 1946-
  • The Making of the "Dentiste," c. 1650-1760 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • King, Roger, 1955- Making of the "dentiste," c. 1650-1760.
    • Dentistry -- France -- History -- 17th century.
    Rosner, Lisa M.
  • Madness and Society in Eighteenth-Century Scotland (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Houston, R. A. (Robert Allan), 1954- Madness and society in eighteenth-century Scotland.
    • Mental illness -- Scotland -- History -- 18th century.
    Weiner, Dora B.
  • Soigner et consoler: La vie quotidienne dans un hôpital à la fin de l'Ancien Régime (Genève 1750-1820) (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Louis-Courvoisier, Micheline, 1957- Soigner et consoler: la vie quotidienne dans un hôpital à la fin de l'Ancien Régime (Genève 1750-1820)
    • Hospitals -- Switzerland -- Geneva -- History.
    Greenblatt, Samuel H.
  • An Odd Kind of Fame: Stories of Phineas Gage (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Macmillan, Malcolm, 1929- Odd kind of fame: stories of Phineas Gage.
    • Gage, Phineas -- Health.
    Hamlin, Christopher, 1951-
  • Sparks of Life: Darwinism and the Victorian Debates over Spontaneous Generation (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Strick, James Edgar, 1956- Sparks of life: Darwinism and the Victorian debates over spontaneous generation.
    • Spontaneous generation -- Great Britain -- History -- Victoria, 1837-1901.
    Zhuk, S. I. (Sergei Ivanovich)
  • Science, Women and Revolution in Russia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Koblitz, Ann Hibner. Science, women and revolution in Russia.
    • Women -- Russia -- History -- 19th century.
    Goodyear, J. D.
  • Race, Place, and Medicine: The Idea of the Tropics in Nineteenth-Century Brazilian Medicine (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Peard, Julyan G. Race, place, and medicine: the idea of the tropics in nineteenth-century Brazilian medicine.
    • Escola Tropicalista Bahiana -- History -- 19th century.
    Grey, Michael R.
  • Authorized to Heal: Gender, Class, and the Transformation of Medicine in Appalachia, 1880-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Barney, Sandra L. Authorized to heal: gender, class, and the transformation of medicine in Appalachia, 1880-1930.
    • Women in medicine -- Appalachian Region -- History.
    Vanast, Walter J.
  • Colonizing Bodies: Aboriginal Health and Healing in British Columbia, 1900-1950 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kelm, Mary-Ellen, 1964- Colonizing bodies: aboriginal health and healing in British Columbia, 1900-1950.
    • Indians of North America -- Colonization -- British Columbia.
    Roderer, Nancy K.
  • Guardians of Medical Knowledge: The Genesis of the Medical Library Association (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Connor, Jennifer. Guardians of medical knowledge: the genesis of the Medical Library Association.
    • Medical Library Association -- History.
    Decker, Hannah S.
  • The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sándor Ferenczi. Vol. 3, 1920-1933 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sándor Ferenczi.
    • Ferenczi, Sándor, 1873-1933.
    • Brabant-Gerö, Eva, ed.
    • Falzeder, Ernst, ed.
    • Giampieri-Deutsch, Patrizia, ed.
    • Hoffer, Peter T., tr.
    • Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939 -- Correspondence.
    Liang, Oliver.
  • Inventing the Criminal: A History of German Criminology, 1880-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wetzell, Richard F. Inventing the criminal: a history of German criminology, 1880-1945.
    • Criminology -- Germany -- History.
    Kater, Michael H., 1937-
  • Nurses in Nazi Germany: Moral Choice in History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McFarland-Icke, Bronwyn Rebekah, 1965- Nurses in Nazi Germany: moral choice in history.
    • Psychiatric nursing -- Moral and ethical aspects -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
    Schmidt, Ulf.
  • The Red Cross and the Holocaust (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Favez, Jean-Claude. Red Cross and the Holocaust.
    • Fletcher, John, ed.
    • Fletcher, Beryl, ed.
    • Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)
    Fitzgerald, Gerard J.
  • The Medical Department: Medical Service in the War against Japan (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Condon-Rall, Mary Ellen, 1938- Medical department: medical service in the war against Japan.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Medical care -- United States.
    Berridge, Virginia.
  • Dangerous Liaisons: A Social History of Venereal Disease in Twentieth-Century Scotland (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Davidson, Roger. Dangerous liaisons: a social history of venereal disease in twentieth-century Scotland.
    • Sexually transmitted diseases -- Scotland -- History -- 20th century.
    Sellers, Christopher C.
  • Brush with Death: A Social History of Lead Poisoning (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Warren, Christian. Brush with death: a social history of lead poisoning.
    • Lead poisoning -- United States -- History.
    Hepler, Allison L.
  • Magic Mineral to Killer Dust: Turner & Newall and the Asbestos Hazard (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tweedale, Geoffrey. Magic mineral to killer dust: Turner & Newall and the asbestos hazard.
    • Asbestos industry -- Health aspects -- Great Britain.
    Whittemore, Gilbert.
  • Permissible Dose: A History of Radiation Protection in the Twentieth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Walker, J. Samuel. Permissible dose: a history of radiation protection in the twentieth century.
    • Radiation -- Safety measures -- History.
    Fisher, John.
  • Anthrax: The Investigation of a Deadly Outbreak (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Guillemin, Jeanne, 1943- Anthrax: the investigation of a deadly outbreak.
    • Anthrax -- Russia -- Ekaterinburg -- Epidemiology.
    Keating, Peter, 1953-
  • Molecularizing Biology and Medicine: New Practices and Alliances, 1910s-1970s (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Chadarevian, Soraya de, ed. Molecularizing biology and medicine: new practices and alliances, 1910s-1970s.
    • Kamminga, Harmke, ed.
    • Molecular biology -- History -- 20th century.
    Harrison Calmes, Selma.
  • Careers in Anesthesiology: Autobiographical Memoirs. Vol. 3 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fink, B. Raymond, ed. Careers in anesthesiology: autobiographical memoirs.
    • McGoldrick, Kathryn E., ed.
    • Anesthesiologists -- Biography.
    Sloane, David Charles.
  • Healthcare Architecture in an Era of Radical Transformation (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Verderber, Stephen. Healthcare architecture in an era of radical transformation.
    • Fine, David J.
    • Hospital architecture.
    Warsh, Cheryl Lynn Krasnick, 1957-
  • Secondary Sources in the History of Canadian Medicine: A Bibliography / Bibliographie de l'histoire de la médecine. Vol. 2 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Roland, Charles G. Secondary sources in the history of Canadian medicine: a bibliography.
    • Bernier, Jacques, 1945-
    • Medicine -- Canada -- History -- Bibliography.
    Gilman, Sander L.
  • Ways of Knowing: A New History of Science, Technology, and Medicine (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pickstone, John V. Ways of knowing: a new history of science, technology, and medicine
    • Science -- History.



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