Bulletin of the History of Medicine

The Bulletin of the History of Medicine 75.3, Fall 2001

Contents

Articles

    Hodges, Frederick Mansfield.
  • The Ideal Prepuce in Ancient Greece and Rome: Male Genital Aesthetics and Their Relation to Lipodermos, Circumcision, Foreskin Restoration, and the Kynodesme
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    Subject Headings:
    • Penis.
    • Aesthetics, Ancient.
    • Human figure in art.
    • Circumcision -- Law and legislation -- Rome.
    • Medicine, Ancient.
    Summary:
      This study examines the evolution of Greek and Roman medical conceptualizations of preputial aesthetics, utilizing evidence found in classical medical texts as well as clues from literature, legal sources, and art. A conclusive picture emerges that the Greeks valued the longer prepuce and pathologized the penis characterized by a deficient prepuce--especially one that had been surgically ablated--under the disease concept of lipodermos. The medical conceptualization of lipodermos is also placed in the historical context of the legal efforts to abolish ritual circumcision throughout the Seleucid and Roman empires.
    Keywords:
      lipodermos, penis, prepuce, aesthetics, classics, Greek art, Roman art, circumcision
    Alborn, Timothy L.
  • Insurance against Germ Theory: Commerce and Conservatism in Late-Victorian Medicine
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    Subject Headings:
    • Insurance companies, British -- History -- 19th century.
    • Tuberculosis -- Etiology.
    • Physicians -- Great Britain -- Attitudes.
    • Insurance, Life -- Medical examinations -- Great Britain.
    Summary:
      This article highlights the role played by commercial life insurance companies in determining the response to tuberculosis in Britain between 1865 and 1920. Late-Victorian life offices hired two sorts of physicians to help them screen out high-risk proposals: provincial medical examiners, who collected fees for examining candidates; and salaried medical advisors, who developed guidelines for the medical examination and interpreted the examiners' findings for the head office. The latter set of physicians, many of whom worked at specialist consumption hospitals in London, established an orthodoxy among life offices that privileged hereditarian explanations for the cause of tuberculosis. The provincial examiners resisted that orthodoxy, arguing that advances in public health and treatment rendered irrelevant any apparent correlation between family history and tuberculosis. In adjudicating this internal dispute, life offices stood by their salaried advisors, but in the process pushed them away from viewing disease in terms of specific causes and toward viewing disease in terms of statistical correlation. This victory of statistics over etiology preserved, at least for the rest of the twentieth century, the institutional prominence of insurance as a technique for coping with medical uncertainty.
    Keywords:
      tuberculosis, pulmonary consumption, life insurance, nineteenth-century Britain, Brompton Hospital, medical examination, statistics, etiology, heredity
    Kay, Gwen.
  • Healthy Public Relations: The FDA's 1930s Legislative Campaign
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    Subject Headings:
    • United States. Food and Drug Administration -- Public relations.
    • Public health -- United States.
    • United States. Pure Food and Drugs Act.
    Summary:
      In this article, I argue that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an oft-overlooked government agency that acts to preserve and secure the public's health. From its early years as an agency charged with enforcement of the 1906 Pure Food and Drugs Act, the FDA not only protected the public's health but also made the public aware of its mission, using methods as diverse as displays at county fairs and at the 1933 Chicago World's Fair, radio programming, and active correspondence. The agency encouraged the public to protect itself, particularly in those arenas in which the FDA had no regulatory authority. In addition, it may have overstepped its boundaries when it actively solicited public support for a bill submitted to Congress in the early 1930s. In the dark days of the Great Depression, the FDA contended not only with limited resources and its own feelings of inadequacy in terms of what could and could not be done to protect the populace, but also with "guinea pig" books that horrified and angered many readers. By 1938, when the agency prevailed and the revisions to the 1906 Act passed Congress and were signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the FDA had done all that a responsible public health agency should do, and more.
    Keywords:
      Food and Drug Administration (FDA); twentieth-century United States; public health; food and drug legislation; U.S. government; radio
    Fairchild, Amy L.
  • The Polio Narratives: Dialogues with FDR
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    Subject Headings:
    • Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945 -- Health.
    • Poliomyelitis -- Patients -- United States.
    Summary:
      As a group of accounts that span the decades from the mid-1940s to the present, the published polio narratives enable us to align their shifting perceptions of disability with social, cultural, and technological change. This paper identifies two distinct groups of narratives. Authors of the first group, writing between the mid-1930s and mid-1950s--a period of relative prosperity, conformity, and homogeneity--were uncomfortable with radical movements, diversity, and conflict; their narratives typically told of either full or substantial recovery. Beginning in the mid-1950s--the period of both McCarthy and the Civil Rights movement--a second wave of narratives begins to tell stories of partial to serious disability; typically, they reflect on a lifetime of coping with chronic disability. Both sets of narratives, however, represent a dialogue with Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Roosevelt himself, journalists, and the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis all helped to create and promote a core polio narrative featuring FDR's triumph over disease and disability that would become a national myth. Yet while the early narratives reinforced the core elements of the Roosevelt myth, the later ones began to challenge them.
    Keywords:
      polio, illness narratives, disability, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, myth, patients' rights movement, victimhood
    Savitt, Todd Lee.
  • American Association for the History of Medicine: Report of the Seventy-fourth Annual Meeting
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    Subject Headings:
    • American Association for the History of Medicine. Meeting (74th : 2001 : Charleston, S.C.)
    • Medicine -- History -- Congresses.

Book Reviews

    Bliquez, Lawrence J.
  • The Treatment of War Wounds in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Salazar, Christine F. Treatment of war wounds in Graeco-Roman antiquity.
    • War wounds -- Treatment -- Greece -- History.
    O'Neill, Ynez Violé.
    Infusino, Mark.
  • Medicina Antiqua: Codex Vindobonensis 93, Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jones, Peter Murray. Medicina antiqua: Codex Vindobonensis 93, Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.
    • Unterkircher, Franz.
    • Materia medica, Vegetable -- Early works to 1800.
    Reeds, Karen.
  • Herbs and Herbalism in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and: Pristina Medicamenta: Ancient and Medieval Medical Botany (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stannard, Jerry. Herbs and herbalism in the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
    • Kay, Richard, ed.
    • Stannard, Katherine E., ed.
    • Stannard, Jerry. Pristina medicamenta: ancient and medieval medical botany.
    • Stannard, Katherine E., ed.
    • Kay, Richard, ed.
    • Materia medica, Vegetable -- History.
    • Botany, Medical -- History.
    Reeds, Karen.
  • Pharmacie et médicament en Méditerranée occidentale (XIIIe-XVIe siècles) (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bénézet, Jean-Pierre. Pharmacie et médicament en Méditerranée occidentale (XIIIe-XVIe siècles)
    • Pharmacology -- Mediterranean Region -- History.
    Wear, A. (Andrew).
  • How To Do It: Guides to Good Living for Renaissance Italians, and: Hygiene in the Early Modern Medical Tradition (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bell, Rudolph M. How to do it: guides to good living for Renaissance Italians.
    • Mikkeli, Heikki. Hygiene in the early modern medical tradition.
    • Family -- Italy -- History -- 16th century.
    • Medicine, Preventive -- History.
    O'Neill, Ynez Violé.
  • On the Fabric of the Human Body. Book 2, The Ligaments and Muscles (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Vesalius, Andreas, 1514-1564. On the fabric of the human body. Book 2, The ligaments and muscles.
    • Richardson, William Frank, tr.
    • Carman, John Burd, tr.
    • Muscles -- Anatomy -- Early works to 1800.
    Mora, George.
  • Immaginazione e malattia: Saggio su Jan Baptiste van Helmont (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Giglioni, Guido. Immaginazione e malattia: saggio su Jan Baptiste van Helmont.
    • Helmont, Jean Baptiste van, 1577-1644.
    Schleiner, Winfried.
  • A History of Madness in Sixteenth-Century Germany (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Midelfort, H. C. Erik. History of madness in sixteenth-century Germany.
    • Mental illness -- Germany -- History -- 16th century.
    Zierler, Kenneth.
  • On the Reason of the Movement of the Muscles (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Croone, William, 1633-1684. On the reason of the movement of the muscles.
    • Maquet, Paul G. J., 1928-, tr.
    • Muscle contraction -- Early works to 1800.
    Risse, Guenter B.
  • The Clinical Consultations of Francesco Torti (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Torti, Francesco, 1658-1741. Clinical consultations of Francesco Torti.
    • Jarcho, Saul, tr.
    • Torti, Francesco, 1658-1741.
    Rosner, Lisa.
  • James Welwood: Physician to the Glorious Revolution (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Furdell, Elizabeth Lane. James Welwood: physician to the Glorious Revolution.
    • Welwood, James, 1652-1727.
    Rousseau, G. S. (George Sebastian)
  • Obesity and Depression in the Enlightenment: The Life and Times of George Cheyne (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Guerrini, Anita, 1953- Obesity and depression in the enlightenment: the life and times of George Cheyne.
    • Cheyne, George, 1673-1743.
    Rousseau, G. S. (George Sebastian)
  • Johann Georg Zimmermann--königlich grossbritannischer Leibarzt (1728-1795) (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schramm, Hans-Peter, ed. Johann Georg Zimmermann--königlich grossbritannischer Leibarzt (1728-1795)
    • Zimmermann, Johann Georg, 1728-1795 -- Congresses.
    Giglioni, Guido.
  • The Matter of Motion and Galvani's Frogs (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Williams, B. Innes (Billie Innes), 1925- Matter of motion and Galvani's frogs.
    • Galvani, Luigi, 1737-1798. De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius.
    Lanzoni, Susan.
  • Sex, Religion, and the Making of Modern Madness: The Eberbach Asylum and German Society, 1815-1849 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Goldberg, Ann. Sex, religion, and the making of modern madness: the Eberbach Asylum and German society, 1815-1849.
    • Psychiatry -- Germany -- History -- 19th century.
    Wilson, Philip K.
  • Bodies of Evidence: Medicine and the Politics of the English Inquest, 1830-1926 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Burney, Ian A. Bodies of evidence: medicine and the politics of the English inquest, 1830-1926.
    • Medical jurisprudence -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century.
    Lawrence, Christopher.
  • Gentlemen, Scientists and Doctors: Medicine at Cambridge, 1800-1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Weatherall, Mark. Gentlemen, scientists and doctors: medicine at Cambridge, 1800-1940.
    • Medicine -- England -- Cambridge -- History -- 19th century.
    More, Ellen Singer.
  • A New and Untried Course: Woman's Medical College and Medical College of Pennsylvania, 1850-1998 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Peitzman, Steven J. (Steven Jay), 1945- New and untried course: Woman's Medical College and Medical College of Pennsylvania, 1850-1998.
    • Medical College of Pennsylvania -- History.
    Savitt, Todd Lee.
  • Slavery and Medicine: Enslavement and Medical Practices in Antebellum Louisiana (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bankole, Katherine Kemi. Slavery and medicine: enslavement and medical practices in antebellum Louisiana.
    • Medicine -- Louisiana -- History -- 18th century.
    Rodríguez Ocaña, Esteban.
  • Gesundheit und Parlamentarismus in Spanien: Die Politik der Cortes und die öffentliche Gesundheitsfürsorge in der Restaurationszeit (1876-1923) (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Herold-Schmidt, Hedwig. Gesundheit und Parlamentarismus in Spanien: die Politik der Cortes und die öffentliche Gesundheitsfürsorge in der Restaurationszeit (1876-1923)
    • Medical policy -- Spain -- History.
    Benedict, Carol (Carol Ann).
  • The Life and Times of Sir Kai Ho Kai: A Prominent Figure in Nineteenth-Century Hong Kong (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Choa, G. H. (Gerald H.), 1921- Life and times of Sir Kai Ho Kai: a prominent figure in nineteenth-century Hong Kong.
    • Ho, Kai Kai, 1859-1914.
    Lella, Joseph W.
  • The Politics of Passion: Norman Bethune's Writing and Art (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bethune, Norman. Politics of passion: Norman Bethune's writing and art.
    • Hannant, Larry, 1950-, ed.
    • Bethune, Norman.
    Unschuld, Paul U. (Paul Ulrich).
  • The Transmission of Chinese Medicine, and: Science and Civilisation in China. Vol. 6, Biology and Biological Technology; part VI, Medicine (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hsu, Elisabeth. Transmission of Chinese medicine.
    • Needham, Joseph, 1900- Science and civilisation in China.
    • Sivin, Nathan, ed.
    • Medicine, Chinese -- Study and teaching -- China.
    • China -- Civilization.
    Anderson, Ian.
  • May the People Live: A History of Maori Health Development, 1900-1920, and: Maori Health and Government Policy, 1840-1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lange, Raeburn. May the people live: a history of Maori health development, 1900-1920.
    • Dow, Derek A. Maori health and government policy, 1840-1940.
    • Maori (New Zealand people) -- Social conditions.
    • Maori (New Zealand people) -- Medical care -- History.
    Vaughan, Megan.
  • Imperial Bedlam: Institutions of Madness in Colonial Southwest Nigeria (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sadowsky, Jonathan Hal. Imperial bedlam: institutions of madness in colonial southwest Nigeria.
    • Psychiatric hospitals -- Nigeria -- History.
    Joy, Robert J. T.
  • From Shell Shock to Combat Stress: A Comparative History of Military Psychiatry (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Binneveld, J. M. W. (Johannes Martinus Wouter), 1943- From shell shock to combat stress: a comparative history of military psychiatry.
    • O'Kane, John, tr.
    • Military psychiatry -- History.
    Corn, Jacqueline K.
  • Deadly Glow: The Radium Dial Worker Tragedy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mullner, Ross. Deadly glow: the radium dial worker tragedy.
    • Watch dial painters -- Diseases -- United States -- History.
    Kater, Michael H.
  • Sisters in Sorrow: Voices of Care in the Holocaust (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ritvo, Roger A., 1944-, ed. Sisters in sorrow: voices of care in the Holocaust.
    • Plotkin, Diane M., 1942-, ed.
    • Jewish women in the Holocaust.
    Kater, Michael H.
  • Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Weindling, Paul. Epidemics and genocide in eastern Europe, 1890-1945.
    • Epidemics -- Europe, Eastern -- History -- 19th century.
    Lombardo, Paul A.
  • Tuskegee's Truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Reverby, Susan, ed. Tuskegee's truths: rethinking the Tuskegee syphilis study.
    • Tuskegee Syphilis Study.
    Jonsen, Albert R.
  • Medical Harm: Historical, Conceptual, and Ethical Dimensions of Iatrogenic Illness (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sharpe, Virginia A. (Virginia Ashby), 1959- Medical harm: historical, conceptual, and ethical dimensions of iatrogenic illness.
    • Faden, A. I.
    • Iatrogenic diseases.
    Young, James Harvey.
  • Snake Oil, Hustlers, and Hambones: The American Medicine Show (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Anderson, Ann, 1951- Snake oil, hustlers, and hambones: the American medicine show.
    • Quacks and quackery -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Prescott, Heather Munro.
  • Teaching Sex: The Shaping of Adolescence in the Twentieth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Moran, Jeffrey P. Teaching sex: the shaping of adolescence in the twentieth century.
    • Sex instruction -- United States -- History.
    English, Peter C.
  • Circumcision: A History of the World's Most Controversial Surgery (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gollaher, David, 1949- Circumcision: a history of the world's most controversial surgery.
    • Circumcision -- History.
    Holubar, Karl.
  • Die Psoriasis: Geschichte und Therapie vom Altertum bis zur Gegenwart (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Saalmann, Gerhard. Psoriasis: Geschichte und Therapie vom Altertum bis zur Gegenwart.
    • Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich, 1960-
    • Psoriasis -- Treatment -- History.
    Oppenheimer, Gerald M.
  • A Plague on Your Houses: How New York Was Burned Down and National Public Health Crumbled (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wallace, Deborah. Plague on your houses: how New York was burned down and national public health crumbled.
    • Wallace, Rodrick.
    • Public health -- New York (State) -- New York.



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