Bulletin of the History of Medicine

Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 75.1, Spring 2001

Contents

Articles

    Jackson, Stanley W.
  • Presidential Address: The Wounded Healer
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    Subject Headings:
    • Healing -- History.
    • Psychiatry.
    • Pastoral theology.
    Abstract:
      This paper deals with the emergence, elaboration, and use of the concept of "the wounded healer." The term refers to a person whose personal experience of illness and/or trauma has left lingering effects on him--in the form of lessons learned that later served him in ministering to other sufferers, or in the form of symptoms or characteristics that usefully influenced his therapeutic endeavors. While such persons and their actions have been noted across the ages, in other cultures, and in many contexts, it was not until the early twentieth century that the patterns in the behaviors of such persons were recognized, named, explained, and categorized as "healing." Early in the century, the concept was commonly used in the fields of pastoral counseling and analytical psychology; by the end of the century it had been vastly expanded and extended and no longer referred mainly to a healer of psychological suffering. The term wounded healer is now in common use in areas such as rehabilitation medicine, medical-career choice, Alcoholics Anonymous and the self-help movement, and chronic-illness support groups, as well as in the original areas of psychotherapy and pastoral care.
    Keywords:
      psychotherapy, healing, rehabilitation medicine, self-help movement, psychiatry
    Weindling, Paul.
  • The Origins of Informed Consent: The International Scientific Commission on Medical War Crimes, and the Nuremburg Code
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nuremberg Medical Trial, Nuremberg, Germany, 1946-1947.
    • Informed consent (Medical law)
    • Ivy, A. C. (Andrew Conway), 1893-
    • Alexander, Leo, 1905-
    • Thompson, John West Robertson.
    Abstract:
      The Nuremberg Code has generally been seen as arising from the Nuremberg Medical Trial. This paper examines developments prior to the Trial, involving the physiologist Andrew Conway Ivy and an inter-Allied Scientific Commission on Medical War Crimes. The paper traces the formulation of the concept of a medical war crime by the physiologist John West Thompson, as part of the background to Ivy's code on human experiments of 1 August 1946. It evaluates subsequent responses by the American Medical Association, and by other war crimes experts, notably Leo Alexander, who developed Ivy's conceptual framework. Ivy's interaction with the judges at Nuremberg alerted them to the importance of formulating ethical guidelines for clinical research.
    Keywords:
      Nuremberg Trials, informed consent, Andrew Conway Ivy, Leo Alexander, John West Thompson, medical war crimes, human experiments
    Meyerowitz, Joanne J. (Joanne Jay)
  • Sex Research at the Borders of Gender: Transvestites, Transsexuals, and Alfred C. Kinsey
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kinsey, Alfred C. (Alfred Charles), 1894-1956.
    • Transvestites.
    • Transsexuals.
    Abstract:
      Sex researcher Alfred Kinsey's vision of sexual taxonomy continued to evolve after he published his first landmark volume on human sexuality, and his research into sexual subcultures went beyond his initial studies of homosexuality and prostitution. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, he developed a new interest in cross-dressing and cross-gender identification. This article outlines how and why he began to interview transvestites and transsexuals, and places his emerging vision of gendered behavior and gender identity within the scientific theories of his day. Kinsey rejected the prevailing views, preferring instead a behaviorist model of gender. He saw cross-dressing and crossgender identification as male phenomena and used them to speculate about sex differences in the capacity for psychological conditioning. In his usual style, he did not condemn transvestites or transsexuals, but he disapproved of the genital surgery requested by male-to-female transsexuals. It was here that Kinsey hit the limits of his well-known sexual liberalism in which he approved of all sexual variations that did not involve coercion.
    Keywords:
      Alfred Kinsey, Louise Lawrence, transvestism, transsexualism, gender, sex differences, sex research, crossgender identification, psychological conditioning Alexander, John West Thompson, medical war crimes, human experiments

Notes and Comments

    Dendle, Peter.
  • Lupines, Manganese, and Devil-Sickness: An Anglo-Saxon Medical Response to Epilepsy
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    Subject Headings:
    • Anglo-Saxons -- Medicine.
    • Epilepsy -- Treatment.
    • Lupines -- Therapeutic use.
    • Manganese -- Therapeutic use.
    Abstract:
      The most frequently prescribed herb for "devil-sickness" in the vernacular medical books from Anglo-Saxon England, the lupine, is exceptionally high in manganese. Since manganese depletion has been linked with recurring seizures in both clinical and experimental studies, it is possible that lupine administration responded to the particular pathophysiology of epilepsy. Lupine is not prescribed for seizures in classical Mediterranean medical sources, implying that the Northern European peoples (if not the Anglo-Saxons themselves) discovered whatever anticonvulsive properties the herb may exhibit.
    Keywords:
      Anglo-Saxon, demon possession, devil, epilepsy, lupine, Lupinus albus, manganese, Middle Ages

Essay Review

    Weisz, George.
  • Reconstructing Paris Medicine
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hannaway, Caroline, 1943-, ed. Constructing Paris medicine.
    • La Berge, Ann Elizabeth Fowler, 1944-, ed.
    • Medicine -- France -- Paris -- History.

Book Reviews

    Hogan, Larry P. (Larry Paul).
  • Illness and Health Care in the Ancient Near East: The Role of the Temple in Greece, Mesopotamia, and Israel (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Avalos, Hector. Illness and health care in the ancient Near East: the role of the temple in Greece, Mesopotamia, and Israel.
    • Healing -- Religious aspects -- Comparative studies.
    Hinrichs, T. J.
  • Early Chinese Medical Literature: The Mawangdui Medical Manuscripts (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Harper, Donald John, tr. Early Chinese medical literature: the Mawangdui medical manuscripts.
    • Medicine, Chinese -- Early works to 1800.
    Hanson, Marta E.
  • Essential Subtleties on the Silver Sea: The Yin-hai jing-wei: A Chinese Classic on Ophthalmology (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sun, Simiao, 581-682. Essential subtleties on the silver sea: the Yin-hai jing-wei: a Chinese classic on ophthalmology.
    • Kovacs, Jürgen, tr.
    • Unschuld, Paul U. (Paul Ulrich), 1943-, tr.
    • Eye -- Diseases -- Early works to 1800.
    Moran, Bruce T.
  • Paracelsus und seine internationale Rezeption in der frühen Neuzeit: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Paracelsismus (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schott, Heinz, ed. Paracelsus und seine internationale Rezeption in der frühen Neuzeit: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Paracelsismus.
    • Zinguer, Ilana, ed.
    • Paracelsus, 1493-1541 -- Congresses.
    Dempsey, Charles.
  • The Art and Ritual of Childbirth in Renaissance Italy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Musacchio, Jacqueline Marie, 1967- Art and ritual of childbirth in Renaissance Italy.
    • Birth customs -- Italy -- History.
    Lawrence, Christopher.
  • Medicine and Society in Early Modern Europe (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lindemann, Mary. Medicine and society in early modern Europe.
    • Social medicine -- Europe -- History.
    Wear, A. (Andrew).
  • Health Care and Poor Relief in Counter-Reformation Europe (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Grell, Ole Peter, ed. Health care and poor relief in Counter-Reformation Europe.
    • Cunningham, Andrew, Dr., ed.
    • Arrizabalaga, Jon, ed.
    • Poor -- Medical care -- Europe, Southern -- Religious aspects -- Catholic Church -- History.
    Goose, Nigel.
  • The Demography of Early Modern Towns: York in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Galley, Chris. Demography of early modern towns: York in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
    • York (England) -- Population -- History -- 16th century.
    Rosner, Lisa M.
  • Medicine and Charity in Georgian Bath: A Social History of the General Infirmary, c. 1739-1830 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Borsay, Anne. Medicine and charity in Georgian Bath: a social history of the General Infirmary, c. 1739-1830.
    • General Hospital or Infirmary (Bath, England) -- History.
    Loudon, Irvine.
  • The History of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. Vol. 1: Physicians and Surgeons in Glasgow, 1599-1858, and: The History of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. Vol. 2: The Shaping of the Medical Profession, 1858-1999 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Geyer-Kordesch, Johanna. Physicians and surgeons in Glasgow, 1599-1858.
    • Macdonald, Fiona.
    • Hull, Andrew. Shaping of the medical profession, 1858-1999.
    • Geyer-Kordesch, Johanna.
    • Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow.
    • Medical colleges -- Scotland -- Glasgow -- History.
    Hamlin, Christopher.
  • Contagion and the State in Europe, 1830-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Baldwin, Peter. Contagion and the state in Europe, 1830-1930.
    • Medicine, State -- Europe -- History -- 19th century.
    Duffin, Jacalyn.
  • Histoire de la pensée médicale en Occident. 3. Du romantisme à la science moderne (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Grmek, Mirko Drazen, ed. Histoire de la pensée médicale en Occident. 3: Du romantisme à la science moderne.
    • Lambrichs, Louise L., tr.
    • Medicine -- History.
    Harrison, Mark, lecturer.
  • Romanticism and Colonial Disease (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bewell, Alan, 1951- Romanticism and colonial disease.
    • Diseases -- Great Britain -- Colonies -- History.
    Rigau Pérez, José Gabriel.
  • Epidemiología Americana y Filipina, 1492-1898 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Guerra, Francisco. Epidemiología Americana y Filipina, 1492-1898.
    • Epidemiology -- America -- History.
    Frost, Richard H.
  • The Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence: Introduced Infectious Diseases and Population Decline among Northwest Coast Indians, 1774-1874 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Boyd, Robert T. (Robert Thomas), 1945- Coming of the spirit of pestilence: introduced infectious diseases and population decline among Northwest Coast Indians, 1774-1874.
    • Epidemiology -- Northwest, Pacific -- History -- 18th century.
    Cassedy, James H.
  • Facing the "King of Terrors": Death and Society in an American Community, 1750-1990 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wells, Robert V., 1943- Facing the "King of Terrors": death and society in an American community, 1750-1990.
    • Death -- Social aspects -- New York (State) -- Schenectady -- History.
    Provost, Thomas T.
  • To Bind Up the Wounds: Catholic Sister Nurses in the U.S. Civil War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Maher, Mary Denis. To bind up the wounds: Catholic sister nurses in the U.S. Civil War.
    • United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Medical care.
    Cueto, Marcos.
  • Dos micróbios aos mosquitos: Febre amarela e a revolução pasteuriana no Brasil (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Benchimol, Jaime L. Dos micróbios aos mosquitos: febre amarela e a revolução pasteuriana no Brasil.
    • Yellow fever -- Brazil -- History.
    Goodyear James.
  • The Spectacle of the Races: Scientists, Institutions, and the Race Question in Brazil, 1870-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz. Spectacle of the races: scientists, institutions, and the race question in Brazil, 1870-1930.
    • Guyer, Leland, tr.
    • Brazil -- Race relations.
    Schlich, Thomas.
  • Medizin und Kolonialimperialismus: Deutschland 1884-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe. Medizin und Kolonialimperialismus: Deutschland 1884-1945.
    • Medicine -- Germany -- Colonies -- History.
    Schiller, Francis.
  • Ecce Cortex: Beiträge zur Geschichte des modernen Gehirns (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hagner, Michael, ed. Ecce Cortex: Beiträge zur Geschichte des modernen Gehirns.
    • Brain.
    Schiller, Francis.
  • The Hidden Structure: A Scientific Biography of Camillo Golgi (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mazzarello, Paolo. Hidden structure: a scientific biography of Camillo Golgi.
    • Buchtel, Henry A., tr.
    • Badiani, Aldo, tr.
    • Golgi, Camillo, 1843-1926.
    Young, James Harvey.
  • Opium: A History, and: Cocaine: Global Histories, and: Cocaine: From Medical Marvel to Modern Menace in the United States, 1884-1920 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Booth, Martin. Opium: a history.
    • Gootenberg, Paul, 1954-, ed. Cocaine: global histories.
    • Spillane, Joseph F. Cocaine: from medical marvel to modern menace in the United States, 1884-1920.
    • Opium habit -- History.
    • Cocaine -- History.
    Peitzman, Steven J. (Steven Jay).
  • Félix d'Herelle and the Origins of Molecular Biology (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Summers, William C. Félix d'Herelle and the origins of molecular biology.
    • D'Herelle, Félix.
    Sengoopta, Chandak.
  • Würdig einer liebevollen Pflege: Die württembergische Anstaltspsychiatrie im 19. Jahrhundert (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Roth, Angela. Würdig einer liebevollen Pflege: die württembergische Anstaltspsychiatrie im 19. Jahrhundert.
    • Psychiatric hospitals -- Germany -- Württemberg -- History -- 19th century.
    Bullough, Vern L.
  • Medizin und Geschlecht: Zur Konstruktion der Kategorie Geschlecht im medizinischen Diskurs des 19. Jahrhunderts (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schmersahl, Katrin, 1964- Medizin und Geschlecht: zur Konstruktion der Kategorie Geschlecht im medizinischen Diskurs des 19. Jahrhunderts.
    • Sex differences.
    Kater, Michael H.
  • The Nazi War on Cancer (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Proctor, Robert, 1954- Nazi war on cancer.
    • Cancer -- Prevention -- Government policy -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
    Massin, Benoit.
  • Crying Hands: Eugenics and Deaf People in Nazi Germany (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Biesold, Horst, 1939- Crying hands: eugenics and deaf people in Nazi Germany.
    • Sayers, William, tr.
    • Deaf -- Government policy -- Germany.
    Tröhler, Ulrich.
  • Der gute Tod?: Euthanasie und Sterbehilfe in Geschichte und Gegenwart (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Benzenhöfer, Udo. Gute Tod?: Euthanasie und Sterbehilfe in Geschichte und Gegenwart.
    • Euthanasia -- History.
    More, Ellen Singer.
  • The Woman Who Knew Too Much: Alice Stewart and the Secrets of Radiation (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Greene, Gayle, 1943- Woman who knew too much: Alice Stewart and the secrets of radiation.
    • Stewart, Alice M., 1906-
    Hanlon, C. Rollins.
  • A Dream of the Heart: The Life of John H. Gibbon, Jr., Father of the Heart-Lung Machine (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shumacker, Harris B., 1908- Dream of the heart: the life of John H. Gibbon, Jr., father of the heart-lung machine.
    • Gibbon, John Heysham.
    Lomax, Elizabeth M. R.
  • Nurturing Children: A History of Pediatrics (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Colón, A. R. Nurturing children: a history of pediatrics.
    • Colón, P. A.
    • Pediatrics -- History.
    Lunbeck, Elizabeth.
  • Identity's Architect: A Biography of Erik H. Erikson (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Friedman, Lawrence Jacob, 1940- Identity's architect: a biography of Erik H. Erikson.
    • Erikson, Erik H. (Erik Homburger), 1902-
    Herman, Ellen.
  • An American Obsession: Science, Medicine, and Homosexuality in Modern Society (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Terry, Jennifer, Ph. D. American obsession: science, medicine, and homosexuality in modern society.
    • Homosexuality -- United States -- History.
    Mazumdar, Pauline M. H. (Pauline Margaret Hodgson).
  • Proteins, Enzymes, Genes: The Interplay of Chemistry and Biology (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fruton, Joseph S. (Joseph Stewart), 1912- Proteins, enzymes, genes: the interplay of chemistry and biology.
    • Biochemistry -- History.
    Brodie, Janet Farrell.
  • Intended Consequences: Birth Control, Abortion, and the Federal Government in Modern America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Critchlow, Donald T., 1948- Intended consequences: birth control, abortion, and the federal government in modern America.
    • Birth control -- Government policy -- United States.
    Sadowsky, Jonathan Hal.
  • Histories of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Setel, Philip, ed. Histories of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    • Lewis, Milton James, ed.
    • Lyons, Maryinez, ed.
    • Sexually transmitted diseases -- Africa, Sub-Saharan -- History.
    Porter, Roy.
  • History of Medicine: A Scandalously Short Introduction (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Duffin, Jacalyn. History of medicine: a scandalously short introduction.
    • Medicine -- History.



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