An expanded version of the theory of traditional referentiality suggests
that the ambiguous glowing eyes of Iliad 1.200 are Achilles', not Athena's. The
image "glowing eyes" bifurcates into two syntactic groups, a verb group and an
adjective group, with different connotations. The verb group is associated with
enraged mortals; the adjective group, vision and the divine. This division suggests
that the verbally glowing eyes in Iliad 1.200 belong to Achilles and express his
fury. Yet, colored by the adjective group, they also imply Achilles' tragedy by
indexing his vision, semi-divinity, and vitality at the moment when he seals his
This paper presents a literary reading of the Homeric Hymn to Pan,
tracing the effects of phonetic, verbal, and thematic repetitions throughout the
hymn and especially surrounding the appearance of Echo in line 21. A close
reading of the structures generated by these repetitions reveals a complex
superimposition of structural schemata, and a psychoanalytic reader-response
analysis relates our deferred expectation for closure to Pan's disappointed desire
for Echo in the erotic myth. The nightingale simile, in its allusion to the Odyssey,
enacts another kind of echo and illustrates the self-conscious intertextuality of
the archaic Greek poetics of variation.
Jason's Reconciliation with Telamon: A Moral Exemplar in Apollonius' Argonautica (1.1286-1344) [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Apollonius, Rhodius. Argonautica. Book 1.
Anger in literature.
Conduct of life in literature.
Epic poetry, Greek.
Literature and morals.
At the end of the first book of Apollonius' Argonautica, Telamon
accuses Jason of plotting to leave Heracles behind, an insult for which Telamon
later apologizes. This article suggests that their reconciliation unites the Alexandrian
interest in what is appropriate for epic with Aristotelian views on anger
and political friendship, two themes that resonate throughout the poem. While
Telamon's apology and Jason's moderate response revise the structure of
traditional epic quarrels, the portrayal of self-control in this episode constitutes a
moral exemplar in keeping with those Homeric scenes that were admired by
Both epistolary rhetoric and the practice of epistolography reflect the fact that competition for prestige was pervasive in Roman culture. Indeed, even Ciceronian letters of consolation, which a modern reader might expect to be exempt from social striving, are shaped by emulation and evaluation. Additionally, consolatory exchanges—letters of consolation preserved together with their replies—show that the challenges to a consolatory letter's bereaved addressee to meet or exceed a certain standard of behavior, and specifically to emulate the letter's author, were answered and challenged in turn.
Statius, P. Papinius (Publius Papinius) Silvae. Liber 2.
Bereavement in literature.
Social status in literature.
Adoption in literature.
In Silvae 2.1, Statius laments the premature death of the libertus Glaucias, the alumnus of Atedius Melior. This paper examines Statius' response to the rhetorical difficulties posed by Glaucias' status inconsistency and the ambiguous ethical value of fostering in the literary tradition. By presenting alternative models of status, Silvae 2.1 reflects the increasing social power of freedmen and their descendants. Through its representation of Melior's atypical response to orbitas (most attested adoptive and fostering relationships occurred between individuals of similar status), the poem also reflects contemporary demographic and social concerns.