American Journal of Bioethics

The American Journal of Bioethics
Volume 3, Number 3, Summer 2003


Contents

Editorial

    McGee, Glenn, 1967-
  • Editorial: The Wisdom of Leon the Professional [Ethicist]
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kass, Leon.
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.

Target Article

    Robert, Jason Scott.
    Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
  • Crossing Species Boundaries
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    Subject Headings:
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Species -- Identification.
    • Biology -- Philosophy.
    Abstract:
      This paper critically examines the biology of species identity and the morality of crossing species boundaries in the context of emerging research that involves combining human and nonhuman animals at the genetic or cellular level. We begin with the notion of species identity, particularly focusing on the ostensible fixity of species boundaries, and we explore the general biological and philosophical problem of defining species. Against this backdrop, we survey and criticize earlier attempts to forbid crossing species boundaries in the creation of novel beings. We do not attempt to establish the immorality of crossing species boundaries, but we conclude with some thoughts about such crossings, alluding to the notion of moral confusion regarding social and ethical obligations to novel interspecies beings.
    Keywords:
      genomics, chimeras, species, stem cells, hybrids, embryos, taboo, abomination

Open Peer Commentaries

    Thompson, Paul B., 1951-
  • Crossing Species Boundaries Is Even More Controversial than You Think
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Rollin, Bernard E.
  • Ethics and Species Integrity
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Greely, Henry T.
  • Defining Chimeras ... and Chimeric Concerns
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Species.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Chakrabarty, Ananda M., 1938-
  • Crossing Species Boundaries and Making Human-Nonhuman Hybirds: Moral and Legal Ramifications
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Savulescu, Julian.
  • Human-Animal Transgenesis and Chimeras Might Be an Expression of Our Humanity
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Bok, Hilary, 1959-
  • What's Wrong with Confusion?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Glenn, Linda MacDonald.
  • A Legal Perspective on Humanity, Personhood, and Species Boundaries
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human genetics -- Law and legislation -- United States.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    Castle, David, 1967-
  • Hopes against Hopeful Monsters
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Sagoff, Mark.
  • Transgenic Chimeras
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Ankeny, Rachel A.
  • No Real Categories, Only Chimeras and Illusions: The Interplay between Morality and Science in Debates over Embryonic Chimeras
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Siegel, Andrew W.
  • The Moral Insignificance of Crossing Species Boundaries
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Resnik, David B.
  • Patents on Human-Animal Chimeras and Threats to Human Dignity
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Patents.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Patents.
    • Dignity.
    Streiffer, Robert, 1970-
  • In Defense of the Moral Relevance of Species Boundaries
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Cohen, Cynthia B.
  • Creating Human-Nonhuman Chimeras: Of Mice and Men
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Mice -- Embryos.
    • Species.
    Johnston, Josephine.
    Eliot, Christopher.
  • Chimeras and "Human Dignity"
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Species.
    • Dignity.
    Zwanziger, Lee.
  • Crossing Perspectival Chasms about Species
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    McGee, Daniel B.
  • Moral Ambiguity, "Yes," Moral Confusion, "No"
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Wasserman, David T.
  • Species and Races, Chimeras and Multiracial People
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Species -- Classification -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Racism.
    Kobayashi, Nao R.
  • A Scientist Crossing a Boundary: A Step into the Bioethical Issues Surrounding Stem Cell Research
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Stem cells -- Research -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Bioethics.
    Karpowicz, Phillip.
  • In Defense of Stem Cell Chimeras: A Response to "Crossing Species Boundaries"
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Urie, Kimberly A.
    Stanley, Alison.
    Friedman, Jerold D.
  • The Humane Imperative: A Moral Opportunity
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Brem, Sarah K.
    Anijar, Karen Z.
  • The Bioethics of Fiction: The Chimera in Film and Print
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Bioethics.
    • Science fiction films -- History and criticism.
    Franklin, Sarah, 1960-
  • Drawing the Line at Not-Fully-Human: What We Already Know
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robert, Jason Scott. Crossing species boundaries.
    • Baylis, Françoise, 1961-
    • Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Animal genetic engineering -- Moral and ethical aspects.

Target Article

    Katz, Dana.
    Caplan, Arthur L.
    Merz, Jon F.
  • All Gifts Large and Small: Toward an Understanding of the Ethics of Pharmaceutical Industry Gift Giving
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Pharmaceutical industry -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Drugs -- Marketing -- Social aspects -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Much attention has been focused in recent years on the ethical acceptability of physicians receiving gifts from drug companies. Professional guidelines recognize industry gifts as a conflict of interest and establish thresholds prohibiting the exchange of large gifts while expressly allowing for the exchange of small gifts such as pens, note pads, and coffee. Considerable evidence from the social sciences suggests that gifts of negligible value can influence the behavior of the recipient in ways the recipient does not always realize. Policies and guidelines that rely on arbitrary value limits for gift-giving or receipt should be reevaluated.
    Keywords:
      conflicts of interest, gifts, detailing, marketing, pharmaceutical, drug, physicians

Open Peer Commentaries

    Mansfield, Peter R.
  • Bribes for Doctors: A Gift for Bioethicsts?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Physicians -- Professional ethics -- United States.
    Lexchin, Joel, 1948-
  • Voluntary Self-regulatory Codes: What Should We Expect?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Advertising -- Drugs -- Law and legislation.
    • Pharmaceutical industry -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Krimsky, Sheldon.
  • Small Gifts, Conflicts of Interest, and the Zero-Tolerance Threshold in Medicine
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Physicians -- Professional ethics -- United States.
    Brett, Allan S.
  • Cheap Trinkets, Effective Marketing: Small Gifts from Drug Companies to Physicians
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Economic aspects -- United States.
    • Drugs -- Marketing -- Social aspects -- United States.
    • Physicians -- Professional ethics -- United States.
    Morin, Karine.
    Morse, Leonard J.
  • The Ethics of Pharmaceutical Industry Gift Giving: The Role of a Professional Association
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Pharmaceutical industry -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • American Medical Association. Principles of medical ethics.
    Berger, Jeffrey T.
  • Pharmaceutical Industry Influences on Physician Prescribing: Gifts, Quasi-gifts, and Patient-Directed Gifts
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Drugs -- Prescribing -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Physician and patient -- United States.
    Goodman, Bob.
  • All Rationalizations Large and Small
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Medical ethics -- United States.
    Brody, Howard.
  • Pens and Other Pharmaceutical Industry Gifts
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Pharmaceutical industry -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    Seiler, Naomi.
  • Access to Medication and Drug Company Sales Practices: Setting Priorities for Critique and Advocacy
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Medicare fraud.
    Strong, Carson.
  • Lunch with Lilly: Who Pays?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Physicians -- Professional ethics -- United States.
    Terry, Sharon F.
    Burke, Wylie.
  • Banning Pens and Pads Misses the Main Point
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Medical ethics -- United States.
    Rhodes, Rosamond.
    Capozzi, James D.
  • The Invisible Influence of Industry Inducements
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Medical ethics -- United States.
    Chiong, Winston.
  • Industry-to-Physician Marketing and the Cost of Prescription Drugs
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Drugs -- Prices -- Social aspects -- United States.
    Paris, John J.
  • Large or Small, a Gift Is a Gift Is a Gift
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Physicians -- Professional ethics -- United States.
    Trachtman, Howard
  • The Death of Common Sense
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Dana. All gifts large and small: toward an understanding of the ethics of pharmaceutical industry gift giving.
    • Merz, Jon F.
    • Caplan, Arthur L.
    • Gifts -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.
    • Physicians -- Professional ethics -- United States.

Reviews

    Wolpe, Paul Root.
  • Better than Well: American Medicine Meets the American Dream (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Elliott, Carl, 1961- Better than well: American medicine meets the American dream.
    • Social medicine -- United States.
    Jones, Nora L.
  • Validity and Applicability of the Social Sciences to and for Bioethics
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hoffmaster, C. Barry, ed. Bioethics in social context.
    • Medical ethics -- Social aspects.



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