American Journal of Bioethics

The American Journal of Bioethics 2.3, Summer 2002

Contents

Editorial

Target Article

    Eisenberg, Rebecca S.
  • How Can You Patent Genes?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nucleotide sequence -- Patents.
    • Information society -- United States.
    • Bioethics -- United States.
    Abstract:
      What accounts for the continued lack of clarity over the legal procedures for the patenting of DNA sequences? The patenting system was built for a "bricks-and-mortar" world rather than an information economy. The fact that genes are both material molecules and informational systems helps explain the difficulty that the patent system is going to continue to have.
    Keywords:
      patents, DNA sequences, biotechnology, intellectual property rights, products of nature, computer-readable medium

Open Peer Commentaries

    Sagoff, Mark.
  • Intellectual Property and Products of Nature
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eisenberg, Rebecca S. How can you patent genes?
    • Nucleotide sequence -- Patents.
    • Intellectual property -- United States.
    Nelkin, Dorothy.
  • Patenting Genes and Public Interests
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eisenberg, Rebecca S. How can you patent genes?
    • Nucleotide sequence -- Patents.
    • Public interest -- United States.
    • Information society -- United States.
    Wilson, Jack, 1968-
  • No Patents for Semantic Information
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eisenberg, Rebecca S. How can you patent genes?
    • Nucleotide sequence -- Patents.
    • Intellectual property -- United States.
    Quigley, Rosemary B.
  • Waiting on Science: The Stake of Present and Future Patients
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eisenberg, Rebecca S. How can you patent genes?
    • Human genetics -- Patents.
    • Commercial products -- United States.
    Rai, Arti.
  • Locating Gene Patents within the Patent System?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eisenberg, Rebecca S. How can you patent genes?
    • Nucleotide sequence -- Patents.
    • Information society -- United States.
    White, Gladys B.
  • Patenting Genes? A Finger in the Dike of a Bricks-and-Mortar Patent System
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eisenberg, Rebecca S. How can you patent genes?
    • Human genetics -- Patents.
    • Information resources -- United States.
    • Common good.
    Robertson, John A. (John Ancona), 1943-
  • Sequence Patents Are Not the Issue
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eisenberg, Rebecca S. How can you patent genes?
    • Nucleotide sequence -- Patents.
    • Medical informatics -- United States.
    Whitehouse, Peter J.
  • The Evolution of Gene Patenting
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eisenberg, Rebecca S. How can you patent genes?
    • Nucleotide sequence -- Patents.
    • Intellectual property -- United States.
    • Human genetics.
    Garcia, Sandra Anderson.
  • Patenting DNA: Who Defines and Protects the Public Good?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eisenberg, Rebecca S. How can you patent genes?
    • Nucleotide sequence -- Patents.
    • Common good.
    Evans, John Hyde, 1965-
  • The Two Meanings of How and the Gene Patenting Debate
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eisenberg, Rebecca S. How can you patent genes?
    • Nucleotide sequence -- Patents.
    • Common good.
    • Intellectual property -- United States.
    Resnik, David B.
    De Ville, Kenneth Allen, 1955-
  • Bioterrorism and Patent Rights: "Compulsory Licensure" and the Case of Cipro
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bioterrorism -- United States.
    • Ciprofloxacin -- United States -- Patents.
    • Compulsory licensing of patents -- United States.
    • Pharmacy -- Law and legislation -- United States.
    Abstract:
      This paper discusses ethical and policy issues relating to the U.S. government's decision not to override Bayer's patent on Cipro in response to increased demands for the drug in the wake of the anthrax bioterrorism scare. Although the government had the legal authority to override the patent, the decision to not override the patent was morally justified. What is true for Cipro is also true for most other patented pharmaceutical agents. While the federal government clearly possesses the legal power to use and sanction the use of patented intellectual property without the consent of the patentee, this authority should be exercised only sparingly with regard to pharmaceuti-cal products. Instead, government policy makers should maintain a strong presumption against overriding patents, and are morally justified in overriding patents only if the action satisfies five stringent conditions: 1) the medication plays a key role in the government's response to a bona fide national medical emergency; 2) there are no alternative remedies; 3) negotiations made in good faith to obtain the medication or a license to produce the medication have failed; 4) the government compensates the company nonetheless; and 5) the action is limited in time or has a sunset clause. We recognize that this series of threshold tests, if followed, will limit government action against pharmaceutical patents in all but a few cases, but believe that moral considerations and overall social good warrant these narrow and exacting criteria.
    Keywords:
      cipro, patents, bioterrorism, pharmaceutical companies,anthrax

Open Peer Commentaries

    Chakrabarty, Ananda M., 1938-
  • Compulsory Licensure: The Case of Cipro and Beyond
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    Subject Headings:
    • Resnik, David B. Bioterrorism and patent rights: "compulsory licensure" and the case of Cipro.
    • De Ville, Kenneth Allen, 1955-
    • Ciprofloxacin -- United States -- Patents.
    • Compulsory licensing of patents -- United States.
    Kaye, Keith S.
  • The Cipro Patent and Bioterrorism
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    Subject Headings:
    • Resnik, David B. Bioterrorism and patent rights: "compulsory licensure" and the case of Cipro.
    • De Ville, Kenneth Allen, 1955-
    • Bioterrorism -- United States.
    • Ciprofloxacin -- United States -- Patents.
    Dresser, Rebecca.
  • Beyond Government Intervention: Drug Companies and Bioethics
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    Subject Headings:
    • Resnik, David B. Bioterrorism and patent rights: "compulsory licensure" and the case of Cipro.
    • De Ville, Kenneth Allen, 1955-
    • Ciprofloxacin -- United States -- Patents.
    • Pharmaceutical industry -- United States.
    • Bioethics -- United States.
    Smith, Simon (Simon J.)
  • Life, Death, and Monopoly Rights in a Democratic Society
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    Subject Headings:
    • Resnik, David B. Bioterrorism and patent rights: "compulsory licensure" and the case of Cipro.
    • De Ville, Kenneth Allen, 1955-
    • Intellectual property -- United States.
    • Compulsory licensing of patents -- United States.
    Parsi, Kayhan Pake, 1965-
    Egan, Erin A.
  • Patents: The Public Interest versus the Private Privilege
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    Subject Headings:
    • Resnik, David B. Bioterrorism and patent rights: "compulsory licensure" and the case of Cipro.
    • De Ville, Kenneth Allen, 1955-
    • Patent laws and legislation -- United States.
    • Public interest -- United States.
    • Right of property -- United States.
    Trachtman, Howard.
  • Who Are the Guardians Guarding?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Resnik, David B. Bioterrorism and patent rights: "compulsory licensure" and the case of Cipro.
    • De Ville, Kenneth Allen, 1955-
    • Compulsory licensing of patents -- United States.
    • Bioterrorism -- United States.
    • Ciprofloxacin -- United States -- Patents.
    Bloche, Maxwell Gregg.
    Jungman, Elizabeth R.
  • Patent Immorality?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Resnik, David B. Bioterrorism and patent rights: "compulsory licensure" and the case of Cipro.
    • De Ville, Kenneth Allen, 1955-
    • Patent medicines -- Law and legislation -- United States.
    • Bioethics -- United States.
    Leventer, Herb.
  • It Is Not Unethical, Though It Is Often Unwise, to Override Patents
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    Subject Headings:
    • Resnik, David B. Bioterrorism and patent rights: "compulsory licensure" and the case of Cipro.
    • De Ville, Kenneth Allen, 1955-
    • Compulsory licensing of patents -- United States.
    • War and emergency legislation -- United States.
    Ossorio, Pilar N.
  • Not Taking, Just Borrowing: Government Use of Patented Drugs
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    Subject Headings:
    • Resnik, David B. Bioterrorism and patent rights: "compulsory licensure" and the case of Cipro.
    • De Ville, Kenneth Allen, 1955-
    • Patent medicines -- Law and legislation -- United States.
    • Compulsory licensing of patents -- United States.

Essay

    Kuczewski, Mark G.
  • The Gift of Life and Starfish on the Beach: The Ethics of Organ Procurement
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    Subject Headings:
    • Procurement of organs, tissues, etc. -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.

Book Reviews

    Caplan, Arthur L.
  • Our Posthuman Future, and: The Future is Now: America Confronts the New Genetics, and: Redesigning Humans: Our Inevitable Genetic Future (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fukuyama, Francis. Our posthuman future.
    • Kristol, William, ed. Future is now: America contronts the new genetics.
    • Cohen, Eric, 1977-, ed.
    • Stock, Gregory. Redesigning humans: our inevitable genetic future.
    • Biotechnology.
    • Human cloning.
    Zink, Sheldon.
  • Comments on the Contested Terrain of Determining Death
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lock, Margaret M. Twice dead: organ transplants and the reinvention of death.
    • Transplantation of organs, tissues, etc. -- Japan.



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