Teachers of the deaf -- Training of -- United States.
Sign language -- Study and teaching (Higher) -- United States.
Noting that there are no standardized manual communication curricula or proficiency assessments available to teacher preparation programs, the author used a case study to describe how preservice teachers of the deaf are taught to incorporate American Sign Language and various forms of signed English as effective communication tools for students who are deaf and hard of hearing. An accredited undergraduate teacher preparation program located in a rural area was selected for the study. Eight curricular components were examined, and data were triangulated from observations, interviews, and document analyses. The author found (a) that manual communication was taught in three required courses making up 6.57% of the overall curriculum, (b) direct application to the classroom was limited, and (c) there was minor misalignment across the eight curricular components examined. The program did not require an exit-level proficiency exam.
The metacognitive performance of four groups of students was examined. The students' processes of visual analysis and discrimination of real-life pictures were used to measure metacognition. There were 61 participants: 18 hearing students, 18 deaf and hard of hearing students, 16 students with mild mental disabilities, and 9 students with physical disabilities. Analysis revealed no significant differences among hearing students, deaf and hard of hearing students, and students with physical disabilities. The performance of these three groups of students was significantly better than the performance of students with mild mental disabilities. It appears that students with mild mental disabilities encountered difficulties with pictures that required complex visual analyses and discriminations. These difficulties were manifested in a form of deficient simultaneous visual processing along with a low level of knowledge acquisition.
Jones, Elaine, Ph. D.
Ouellette, Sue E.
The present article describes the effectiveness of stress management classes in decreasing perceived stress among Deaf adults. Deaf adults may experience unique stressors, in addition to circumstances associated with increased stress in the general population. The Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) was used as a pretest and posttest measure for participants in a study of the Deaf Heart Health Intervention. Results indicated that (a) some Deaf adults may have higher levels of perceived stress than the general population, and (b) culturally appropriate stress management interventions are promising as a means of assisting Deaf adults to decrease levels of perceived stress, and hence decrease risk for stress-related illnesses. Future research will focus on obtaining a larger, more diverse sample of Deaf adults and refining the intervention for maximum effectiveness.
The article present results of standardization of the Meadow-Kendall Social-Emotional Assessment Inventory for Deaf and Hearing-Impaired Students (Meadow, 1983), school-age version, for use in Turkey. The SEAI is a 59-item measure for assessing socioemotional adjustment of school-age deaf and hearing impaired students. A sample of 1,097 deaf students (609 boys, 488 girls), age range 7–19 years, was rated by their teachers (275 teachers: 149 female, 126 male) using the SEAI. Data were drawn from four types of educational settings: residential, day, special class, mainstream schools. Exploratory factor analysis of the data revealed three main factors of interest, which corresponded to the hypothesized constructs in the original American standardization: Social Adjustment, Self-Image, Emotional Adjustment. The data suggest high reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the SEAI relative to the original American version. Implications of adapting the SEAI for use in Turkey are discussed.
The psychiatric literature has described profoundly prelingually deaf people with psychosis who report hearing voices. The present study proposes that such reports in fact reflect the beliefs of professionals in mental health and deafness and not the hallucinatory experience of psychotic deaf people. The study demonstrates that it is functionally meaningless to assert that a prelingually profoundly deaf psychotic patient "hears voices," and provides a theoretical structure from which to consider more appropriately the internal experiences of deaf people with psychosis, and to encourage the clinically relevant articulation of these experiences. The authors also suggest that the "true" phenomenological experience is of secondary clinical interest to the meaning imposed upon it by the client and the distress caused by it.
Identifying and assessing depression is essential to ensuring access to appropriate treatment and services. Unfortunately, limited literature exists on identifying and assessing depression in prelingually deaf people. In a literature review, the authors critically examined relevant published studies. The earliest reported information on depression in deaf people was found in historical studies that descriptively evaluated specialist psychiatric services for deaf people. These studies did not accurately reflect the prevalence of depression; reasons for this are discussed. Issues regarding assessment of depression in deaf people, such as communication, use of interpreters, and use of standardized assessments, are examined. Studies that have attempted to overcome these challenges are reviewed, including studies using modified versions of written questionnaires designed for hearing people and studies in which standardized questionnaires were translated and administered in sign. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods are highlighted; recommendations for future research are made.
U.S. schools are currently addressing bullying and its effects on children. Bullying is characterized as repetitive verbal teasing, threatening, physical intimidation, demeaning others, violent acts, torture, and other forms of verbal and physical aggression (Smith & Sharp, 1994a). Little is known about bullying and its impact on deaf children. Measures to describe and quantify bullying factors in this population should be developed and validated that address characteristics of deaf victims and bullies, various types of school settings deaf children attend, bullying dynamics that may be unique to this population and its peers, and other environmental factors. The presence of disabilities besides deafness, social support systems of deaf children and their families, sociocultural background, degree of hearing loss, parental educational levels and occupations, socioeconomic status, and linguistic backgrounds should also be considered. This discussion highlights issues and precautions concerning future directions for studying bullying with deaf children.
Teachers of the deaf -- Certification -- United States.
Teachers of the deaf -- Rating of -- United States.
Teachers of the deaf -- Training of -- United States.
The study was designed to identify specific components of teacher excellence, focusing initially on the characteristics of the small number of teachers of the deaf who are certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), then comparing those with the characteristics of other teachers identified as master teachers by university faculty in teacher preparation in deafness. Classroom observation, written lesson plans, teacher questionnaires on beliefs, and content analysis of interactive electronic focus groups were used to compare the two groups of teachers. Results indicated similarities between Board-certified and non–Board-certified master teachers in regard to teacher behaviors and commitment to well-founded pedagogical principles. Differences were found in classroom priorities and in the greater level of interconnectivity expressed by Board-certified teachers as the result of becoming Board certified. Recommendations are made for preparing teachers of deaf students.