Autistic children -- Behavior modification -- United States.
The broad term pervasive developmental disorder (PPD) describes a set of symptoms that occur along a continuum of severity; these symptoms are often referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Little is known about the incidence and prevalence of ASDs among students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH). Teachers of DHH students, who must work with individuals with dual diagnoses, are at a loss for guidance from the literature. The authors review the literature on ASDs (also referred to as PDD) within the DHH population, provide results of a single-subject study to reduce PDD-type behaviors in a child with hearing loss, and argue that teachers of students who are DHH must learn about practices associated with applied behavior analysis as an tool for intervening therapeutically with children with dual diagnoses of hearing loss plus an ASD.
Kluwin, Thomas N.
McCrone, William P.
The study examined deaf clients' perceptions of counseling expertise as a function of several counseling variables: counselor's signing skill, gender, and therapy type. Twenty undergraduate students at a special college for the deaf who were enrolled in either counseling courses or psychology courses viewed 4 video clips reflecting a mock counseling session. After viewing the clips, the participants were asked to complete the Counselor Rating Form—Short Form (Corrigan & Schmidt, 1983). There was no statistically significant main effect for the sex of the counselor, the match between the counselor's gender and the client's gender, or the mode of communication. While the study demonstrates the utility of the method for future research with deaf clients, further modifications of the method are necessary.
Special education -- Government policy -- Australia.
Special education -- Government policy -- Norway.
Inclusion is a term and process that is culturally, politically, medically, philosophically, and historically relative in its interpretations in the education of the deaf. The present study is a comparative analysis of two substantially different education systems for deaf students, those of Norway and Australia. The study objective was to elucidate the sources of some of these differences and to examine the interpretations and applications of inclusion that are inherent in the two countries' policies and practices, and in recent research evaluations. Significant differences exist in the national contexts and in the manner in which inclusion is understood and applied in Norway and Australia; the study reports on recent research examinations of inclusion in the two countries and finds that the transitions from policy to practice seem questionable.
In Taiwan, hearing people generally think deaf individuals can only do jobs requiring minimal communication. The present study was planned to help change hearing people's attitudes toward deaf people's job competence. Multimedia stories of deaf celebrities, e.g., physicians, lawyers, university presidents, professors, senior government officials, and movie stars, were developed. A multimedia computer reading program was developed in which graphic organizers, picture clues, video, and voice were integrated to make reading more exciting and pleasant. Materials were developed to be suitable for dissemination on CD. Regarding attitude change, all differences between pretests and posttests were statistically significant: Hearing students' attitudes toward deaf and hard of hearing people changed positively and significantly. It is recommended that the CD featuring American deaf celebrities be distributed to make hearing people understand deaf people's potential, and to contribute to an environment conducive to their employment in Taiwan.
Teachers of the deaf -- Training of -- United States.
Deaf -- Education -- United States -- Evaluation.
Deaf education teacher preparation programs must prepare teachers to staff an increasing number of oral programs. A survey was conducted to determine which competencies administrators of deaf education programs rate as important for teachers in oral programs and to compare ratings of these competencies by oral school administrators to ratings made by administrators of comprehensive deaf and hard of hearing programs. Between the two groups of administrators, six areas of agreement about competencies were found. There were notable differences in the range of ratings between the two groups. These differences were attributed to the roles teachers assume in the two types of programs and the focus of instruction in each type of program.
Luckner, John L.
Sebald, Ann M.
Muir, Sheryl Goodwin.
General education -- Aims and objectives -- United States.
The ability to read and write for a variety of purposes is essential to success in school and in contemporary society. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct an exhaustive review of the literature and a meta-analysis of literacy research in the field of deaf education. Computer and manual searches of 40 years of peer-reviewed journal articles were conducted. A total of 964 articles related to literacy and deafness were identified and examined; 22 articles met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Results indicate that (a) no two studies examined the same dimension of literacy; (b) there was a paucity of well-designed group studies; (c) there were no systematic replication of studies; (d) there is limited data to establish evidenced-based practices. Consequently, increasing the quantity and improving the quality of research in the field is recommended.
Lytle, Richard R.
Johnson, Kathryn E.
Hui, Yang Jun.
An overview is provided of (a) deaf education in China, (b) views of deaf Chinese, and (c) recent empowering international collaborations. China's national policy focuses on oral/aural education and hearing rehabilitation. However, everyday practice in schools for deaf children includes various forms of Chinese Sign Language. Early childhood education focuses on speech and hearing. Elementary and secondary school curricula reflect low expectations for deaf students and lack the same academic content provided to hearing students. There are limited higher education opportunities. There are no support services such as note takers or interpreters for mainstreamed students. There are no deaf teacher preparation or interpreter training programs. Jobs are few; the vast majority of deaf adults are unemployed. Deaf people interviewed for the article describe their needs, their dreams, and the changes they are witnessing, which result in part from recent empowering international collaborations.
Teachers of the deaf -- Training of -- North America.
Special education -- Aims and objectives -- North America.
A random sample of directors of programs for the deaf in North America were surveyed to get their views about the skills that teacher education programs need to be teaching future teachers of students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The directors were queried about literacy practices, classroom management strategies, and communication strategies used in their programs, and were encouraged to comment freely on the questionnaire items presented to them. Program directors predicted a need for more itinerant and resource teachers. The survey also revealed that programs for the deaf are highly behaviorist (i.e., You do this and you'll get that) in the way they induce students to learn and in how they manage student behavior.