African Studies Review

African Studies Review
Volume 48, Number 3, December 2005

CONTENTS

    Bangeni, Bongi.
    Kapp, Rochelle.
  • Identities in Transition: Shifting Conceptions of Home among "Black" South African University Students
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    Subject Headings:
    • University of Cape Town -- Students -- Psychology.
    • First-generation college students -- South Africa -- Psychology.
    • Identity (Psychology) -- South Africa.
    Abstract:
      This paper is drawn from a longitudinal case study in which we are tracking the progress of twenty students as they pursue their undergraduate degrees at the University of Cape Town. In this paper we trace two first-generation university students' changing constructions of who they are and the concomitant changes in their relationship to home and university over the course of three years. We describe their struggles to present coherent "home" identities and the ways in which these identities are challenged by both the dominant discourses of the institution and by rejection by their home communities. The research questions conventional notions that students from marginalized communities are either alienated from, or uncritically assimilated into, dominant institutional discourses.

      Résumé
      Cet essai découle d'une étude de cas longitudinale dans laquelle nous suivons le progrès de vingt étudiants dans la poursuite de leurs études universitaires à l'université de Cape Town. Dans cette étude, nous traçons l'évolution de leur construction identitaire et les changements concomitants visibles dans leur relation à l'université et à leur lieu d'origine au cours de trois années. Nous décrivons leurs tentatives de présenter une image identitaire cohérente de leur origine, et les manières dont ces identités sont mises en question à la fois par les discours dominants institutionnels et par le rejet provenant de leurs communautés d'origine. La recherche met en question les notions conventionnelles indiquant que les étudiants provenant de communautés marginales sont soit aliénés par, soit assimilés de manière neutre dans les discours dominants institutionnels.

    Gearhart, Rebecca.
  • Ngoma Memories: How Ritual Music and Dance Shaped the Northern Kenya Coast
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    Subject Headings:
    • Swahili-speaking peoples -- Kenya -- Songs and music -- History and criticism.
    • Dance -- Social aspects -- Kenya.
    Abstract:
      This essay integrates ethnographic data collected between Mombasa and the Lamu archipelago in Kenya into the growing body of scholarship on Swahili music and dance (ngoma) traditions. The analysis underscores how the Swahili have used ngoma events to stake claims to higher positions on the social ladder, negotiate difference, create socioeconomic security networks, establish and mark group identity, connect to the spirit world, and pass through various stages of the life cycle. Through a rich array of historical accounts by visitors to the coast, whose texts complement oral histories of coastal residents, the importance of ngoma in the Swahili-ization of the East African coast becomes apparent. A comprehensive understanding of the part ngoma organizations have played in the recreation and re-creation of Swahili society is possible only when one factors in the contributions made by residents of the northernmost portion of the "Swahili coast."

      Résumé
      Cet essai incorpore des données rassemblées entre Mombasa et l'archipel de Lamu au Kenya au corps de la recherche existante sur les traditions de la musique et de la danse (ngoma) swahili. L'analyse souligne la manière dont les Swahili ont utilisé des évènements ngoma en vue de réclamer un réajustement de leurs positions sur l'échelle sociale, négocier leurs différences, créer des réseaux de sécurité socioéconomique, établir et signaliser leur identité de groupe, se connecter au monde spirituel, et effectuer le rite de passage à travers les différentes étapes du cycle de vie. A travers un éventail riche de récits historiques de visiteurs de la côte, dont les textes complémentent les histoires orales des résidents de la côte, l'importance de la tradition ngoma au niveau de l'imprégnation de la côte est africaine par la culture swahili devient apparente. En vue de comprendre de manière globale le rôle que les organisations ngoma ont joué dans le renouveau et la renaissance de la société swahili, il faut prendre en compte les contributions apportées par les résidents de la partie la plus au nord de la côte swahili.

    Alapiki, H. (Henry E.)
  • State Creation in Nigeria: Failed Approaches to National Integration and Local Autonomy
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nationalism -- Nigeria.
    • Nigeria -- Politics and government -- 1960-
    Abstract:
      This paper seeks to demonstrate how the fissiparous tendencies bearing on the Nigerian national polity make the policy of using state creation to achieve national integration a failed strategy. The paper shows how the outcomes of state creation exercises in Nigeria have failed to assuage the very forces that instigate new state demands. It contends that the prospects for national integration and local autonomy depend on the emergence of a purposeful national leadership and proper political restructuring of the federation designed to generate a national image that has more appeal than the regional ones.

      Résumé
      Cet essai cherche à démontrer comment les tendances sécessionnistes pesant sur le système politique national du Nigeria mettent en échec la stratégie de création d'un état pour accomplir le projet d'intégration nationale. Cet essai montre comment les résultats de simulation de création d'un état au Nigeria n'ont pas réussi à apaiser les forces mêmes qui engendrent de nouvelles raisons d'état. A cela s'oppose le fait que les projets d'intégration nationale et d'autonomie locale dépendent de l'émergence d'une direction nationale sensée et d'une restructuration politique appropriée de la fédération constituée en vue de générer une image nationale qui a plus d'attrait que les images régionales.

    Gazibo, Mamoudou.
  • Foreign Aid and Democratization: Benin and Niger Compared
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    Subject Headings:
    • Democratization -- Benin.
    • Democratization -- Niger.
    • Economic assistance -- Benin.
    • Economic assistance -- Niger.
    Abstract:
      This article compares the democratization process in Benin and Niger in the decade from 1989 to 1999 and emphasizes the influence of external donors with regard to their economic support of democratization. The task is twofold. First, I try to understand why, though these two aid-dependent countries share many initial similarities, the former received more external financial assistance than the latter. I build upon New Institutionalist concepts such as timing, sequence, and path dependency to demonstrate that the probability and continuity of foreign aid depend both on the timing and on sequences of the transition—a combination that may or may not produce a path-dependent phenomenon with regard to the donors. Second, I argue that the capacity of foreign aid to foster democratization depends largely on its timing, particularly in critical moments of the democratic process.

      Résumé
      Cet article compare le processus de démocratisation au Bénin et au Niger sur dix années, entre 1989 et 1999, et met l'accent sur l'influence des donateurs externes en terme de leur contribution économique au soutien de la démocratie. Cette comparaison est faite en deux temps. Premièrement, je tente de comprendre pourquoi, alors que ces deux pays, qui dépendent tous deux de l'aide extérieure et ont à priori beaucoup de points communs, le premier a reçu à ce jour plus d'aide financière que le deuxième. J'élabore à partir des idées du mouvement Néo Institutionnaliste, telles que la notion de "moment approprié," la notion de séquence d'évènements, le concept de "path dependency" ou "dépendance à la trajectoire choisie" pour démontrer que la probabilité et la continuité de l'aide internationale dépendent à la fois de l'à propos du moment choisi et des séquences de transition — une combinaison qui peut ou non produire un cycle de répétition de son schéma — du phénomène de dépendance par rapport aux donateurs. Deuxièmement, je défends la thèse que la capacité de l'aide internationale à favoriser le processus de démocratisation dépend largement du moment où elle intervient, particulièrement lors des périodes critiques de ce processus.

ASR Focus
Commentaries on Marie Béatrice Umutesi's Surviving the Slaughter

    Tripp, Aili Mari.
  • Commentaries on Marie Béatrice Umutesiís Surviving the Slaughter: Introduction to ASR Focus
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    Subject Headings:
    • Umutesi, Marie Béatrice, 1959- Surviving the slaughter: the ordeal of a Rwandan refugee in Zaire.
    • Emerson, Julia, tr.
    • Rwanda -- History -- Civil War, 1994 -- Refugees.
    Lemarchand, René.
  • Bearing Witness to Mass Murder
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    Subject Headings:
    • Umutesi, Marie Béatrice, 1959- Surviving the slaughter: the ordeal of a Rwandan refugee in Zaire.
    • Emerson, Julia, tr.
    • Rwanda -- History -- Civil War, 1994 -- Refugees.
    Habimana, Aloys.
  • Lending a Voice to the Voiceless: The Quest for Justice in Umutesi's Narrative
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    Subject Headings:
    • Umutesi, Marie Béatrice, 1959- Surviving the slaughter: the ordeal of a Rwandan refugee in Zaire.
    • Emerson, Julia, tr.
    • Rwanda -- History -- Civil War, 1994 -- Refugees.
    Songolo, Aliko, 1945-
  • Marie Béatrice Umutesi's Truth: The Other Rwanda Genocide?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Umutesi, Marie Béatrice, 1959- Surviving the slaughter: the ordeal of a Rwandan refugee in Zaire.
    • Emerson, Julia, tr.
    • Rwanda -- History -- Civil War, 1994 -- Refugees.
    Newbury, Catharine.
  • Suffering and Survival in Central Africa
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    Subject Headings:
    • Umutesi, Marie Béatrice, 1959- Surviving the slaughter: the ordeal of a Rwandan refugee in Zaire.
    • Emerson, Julia, tr.
    • Rwanda -- History -- Civil War, 1994 -- Refugees.
    Lame, Danielle de.
  • On Behalf of Ordinary People: Bridging the Gap between High Politics and Simple Tragedies
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    Subject Headings:
    • Umutesi, Marie Béatrice, 1959- Surviving the slaughter: the ordeal of a Rwandan refugee in Zaire.
    • Emerson, Julia, tr.
    • Rwanda -- History -- Civil War, 1994 -- Refugees.

Review Essays

    Sprague, Courtenay.
  • New Strategies in the Battle against HIV/AIDS
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kimaryo, Scholastica Sylvan, ed. Turning a crisis into an opportunity: strategies for scaling up the national response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Lesotho.
    • AIDS (Disease) -- Lesotho.
    Imperato, Pascal James.
  • Differing Perspecives on Mau Mau
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    Subject Headings:
    • Elkins, Caroline. Imperial reckoning: the untold story of Britain's Gulag in Kenya.
    • Anderson, David, 1957- Histories of the hanged: the dirty war in Kenya and the end of empire.
    • Lovatt Smith, David. Kenya, the Kikuyu and Mau Mau.
    • Kenya -- History -- Mau Mau Emergency, 1952-1960.

Film Reviews

Book Reviews

Anthropology & Sociology

    Byala, Sarah.
  • Emerging Johannesburg: Perspectives on the Postapartheid City (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tomlinson, Richard, 1952-, ed. Emerging Johannesburg: perspectives on the postapartheid city.
    • Johannesburg (South Africa) -- Social conditions.
    Lemarchand, René.
  • No Peace, No War: An Anthropology of Contemporary Armed Conflicts (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Richards, Paul, 1945 May 14-, ed. No peace, no war: an anthropology of contemporary armed conflicts.
    • War.
    Barrett-Gaines, Kathryn.
  • Urbanization and African Cultures (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Falola, Toyin, ed. Urbanization and African cultures.
    • Salm, Steven J., 1966-, ed.
    • Urbanization -- Social aspects -- Africa -- Congresses.
    Stambach, Amy, 1966-
  • Producing African Futures: Ritual and Reproduction in a Neoliberal Age (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Weiss, Brad, ed. Producing African futures: ritual and reproduction in a neoliberal age.
    • Africa, Sub-Saharan -- Religion.
    Niehaus, Isak A. (Isak Arnold)
  • Witchcraft, Violence and Democracy in South Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ashforth, Adam. Witchcraft, violence and democracy in South Africa.
    • Witchcraft -- South Africa -- Soweto.
    Trager, Lillian, 1947-
  • Visions of the City: Accra in the 21st Century, and: Landlords and Lodgers: Socio-Spatial Organization in an Accra Community (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mills-Tettey, Ralph, ed. Visions of the city: Accra in the 21st century.
    • Adi-Dako, Korantema, ed.
    • Pellow, Deborah, 1945- Landlords and lodgers: socio-spatial organization in an Accra community.
    • City planning -- Ghana -- Accra -- Congresses.
    • Human territoriality -- Ghana -- Accra.

Economics & Development

    Brunger, Scott.
  • Undermining Development: The Absence of Power among Local NGOs in Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Michael, Sarah. Undermining development: the absence of power among local NGOs in Africa.
    • Non-governmental organizations -- Zimbabwe.
    DeGregori, Thomas R.
  • The Iraqw of Tanzania: Negotiating Rural Development, and: A History Under Siege: Intensive Agriculture in the Mbulu Highlands, Tanzania, 19th Century to the Present (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Snyder, Katherine A. Iraqw of Tanzania: negotiating rural development.
    • Börjeson, Lowe. History under siege: intensive agriculture in the Mbulu Highlands, Tanzania, 19th century to the present.
    • Iraqw (African people) -- Tanzania.
    • Land use -- Tanzania -- Mbulu -- History.
    Riddell, Barry, 1931-
  • The Monetary Geography of Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Masson, Paul R. Monetary geography of Africa.
    • Pattillo, Catherine A. (Catherine Anne)
    • Monetary policy -- Africa.

Education

    Newbury, David S.
  • Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial African Issues (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Moseley, William G., ed. Taking sides: clashing views on controversial African issues.
    • Africa -- Politics and government -- 1960- -- Periodicals.
    Van der Westhuizen, G. J.
  • Elusive Equity: Education Reform in Post-Apartheid South Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fiske, Edward B. Elusive equity: education reform in post-apartheid South Africa.
    • Ladd, Helen F.
    • Educational equalization -- South Africa.

Geography, Environment, & Demography

    Moseley, William G.
    Jermé, Erika.
  • Science, Society and Power: Environmental Knowledge and Policy in West Africa and the Caribbean (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fairhead, James, 1962- Science, society and power: environmental knowledge and policy in West Africa and the Caribbean.
    • Leach, Melissa.
    • Nature conservation -- Government policy -- Guinea.

Health & Disease

    Adama, Hamadou.
  • Making Kedjom Medicine: A History of Public Health and Well-Being in Cameroon (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Maynard, Kent, 1947- Making Kedjom medicine: a history of public health and well-being in Cameroon.
    • Babanki (African people) -- Medicine.

History

    Niemann, Michael.
  • The Historical Dimensions of Democracy and Human Rights in Zimbabwe. Volume 2: Nationalism, Democracy and Human Rights (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ranger, T. O. (Terence O.), ed. Historical dimensions of democracy and human rights in Zimbabwe.
    • Democracy -- Zimbabwe -- History -- Congresses.
    Robertson, James.
  • African Voices of the Atlantic Slave Trade: Beyond the Silence and the Shame (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bailey, Anne C. (Anne Caroline) African voices of the Atlantic slave trade: beyond the silence and the shame.
    • Slave trade -- Africa, West -- History.
    Moorman, Marissa Jean.
  • Laduma!: Soccer, Politics and Society in South Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Alegi, Peter. Laduma!: soccer, politics and society in South Africa.
    • Soccer -- South Africa -- History.

Law & Human Rights

    Stirling-Zanda, Simonetta.
  • Indigenous Peoples' Rights of Southern Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hitchcock, Robert K., ed. Indigenous peoples' rights of Southern Africa.
    • Vinding, Diana, ed.
    • Indigenous peoples -- Legal status, laws etc. -- Africa, Southern.

Literature and the Arts

    Curry, Ginette.
  • In Senghor's Shadow: Art, Politics, and the Avant-Garde in Senegal, 1960-1995 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Harney, Elizabeth. In Senghor's shadow: art, politics, and the avant-garde in Senegal, 1960-1995.
    • Modernism (Art) -- Senegal -- Dakar.
    Kyker, Jennifer.
  • Sounds of Change: Social and Political Features of Music in Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Thorsén, Stig-Magnus, ed. Sounds of change: social and political features of music in Africa.
    • Music -- Africa.
    Walsh, Andrew.
  • Unwrapping the Textile Traditions of Madagascar (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kusimba, Chapurukha Makokha, ed. Unwrapping the textile traditions of Madagascar.
    • Odland, J. Claire, ed.
    • Bronson, Bennet, 1938-, ed.
    • Material culture -- Madagascar.
    Wright, Laura, 1970-
  • A History of South African Literature (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Heywood, Christopher. History of South African literature.
    • South African literature -- History and criticism.

Media

    Janis, Michael.
  • African Media Cultures: Transdisciplinary Perspectives/ Cultures de médias en Afrique: Perspectives Transdisciplinaires (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Beck, Rose Marie, ed. African media cultures: transdisciplinary perspectives.
    • Wittmann, Frank, 1974-, ed.
    • Mass media and culture -- Africa.

Politics

    Burgess, Stephen Franklin.
  • Durable Peace: Challenges for Peacebuilding in Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ali, Taisier Mohamed Ahmed, 1946-, ed. Durable peace: challenges for peacebuilding in Africa.
    • Matthews, Robert O., ed.
    • Peace-building -- Africa.
    Cooper, Allan D.
  • Youth and Identity Politics in South Africa 1990-1994 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dlamini, S. Nombuso, 1962- Youth and identity politics in South Africa 1990-1994.
    • Youth, Black -- South Africa -- KwaZulu-Natal -- Political activity.
    Houngnikpo, Mathurin C.
  • Politics in Francophone Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Le Vine, Victor T. Politics in Francophone Africa.
    • Africa, French-speaking West -- Politics and government.
    Rutherford, Blair A. (Blair Allan), 1965-
  • Reclaiming Zimbabwe: The Exhaustion of the Patriarchal Model of Liberation (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Campbell, Horace. Reclaiming Zimbabwe: the exhaustion of the patriarchal model of liberation.
    • Zimbabwe -- Politics and government -- 1980-
    Scarnecchia, Timothy.
  • Zimbabwe: The Past Is the Future (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Harold-Barry, David, ed. Zimbabwe: the past is the future.
    • Zimbabwe -- Politics and government -- 1980-
    Taylor, Scott D., 1965-
  • Transforming Mozambique: The Politics of Privatization, 1975-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pitcher, M. Anne. Transforming Mozambique: the politics of privatization, 1975-2000.
    • Structural adjustment (Economic policy) -- Mozambique.
    Abbink, J.
  • The Horn of Africa as Common Homeland: The State and Self-Determination in the Era of Heightened Globalization (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lata, Leenco. Horn of Africa as common homeland: the state and self-determination in the era of heightened globalization.
    • Africa, Northeast -- Politics and government -- 1974-
    Dorman, Sara Rich.
  • Southern Africa in World Politics: Local Aspirations and Global Entanglements (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Love, Janice. Southern Africa in world politics: local aspirations and global entanglements.
    • Globalization -- Political aspects -- Africa, Southern.

Religion

    Witte, Marleen de.
  • Ghana's New Christianity: Pentecostalism in a Globalising African Economy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gifford, Paul, 1944- Ghana's new Christianity: Pentecostalism in a globalising African economy.
    • Pentecostalism -- Ghana.

Books Received




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