African Studies Review

African Studies Review
Volume 48, Number 2, September 2005

CONTENTS

ASR Focus
Mourning and the Imagination of Political Time in Contemporary Central Africa

    Boeck, Filip de.
  • The Apocalyptic Interlude: Revealing Death in Kinshasa
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    Subject Headings:
    • Death -- Social aspects -- Congo (Democratic Republic) -- Kinshasa.
    • Pentecostalism -- Congo (Democratic Republic) -- Kinshasa.
    • Eschatology.
    • Supernatural.
    Abstract:
      Temporality in contemporary Kinshasa is of a very specific eschatological kind and takes its point of departure in the Bible, and more particularly in the Book of Revelation, which has become an omnipresent point of reference in Kinshasa's collective imagination. The lived-in time of everyday life in Kinshasa is projected against the canvas of the completion of everything, a completion which will be brought about by God. As such, the Book of Revelation is not only about doom and destruction, it is essentially also a book of hope. Yet the popular understanding of the Apocalypse very much centers on the omnipotent presence of evil. This article focuses on the impact of millennialism on the Congolese experience, in which daily reality is constantly translated into mythical and prophetic terms as apocalyptic interlude.
    Résumé:
      Le concept de temporalité dans le Kinshasa d'aujourd'hui est d'une espèce eschatologique bien particulière et trouve son origine dans la Bible, plus précisément dans le livre des Révélations, qui est devenu un point de référence omniprésent dans l'imagination collective des habitants de Kinshasa. Le temps vécu de la vie quotidienne à Kinshasa est comparé au canevas de l'achèvement ultime, un achèvement qui sera accompli par Dieu. En tant que tel, le livre des Révélations ne se concentre pas seulement sur la fatalité et la destruction mais c'est essentiellement un livre d'espérance. Et pourtant, la conception populaire de l'apocalypse tourne principalement autour de la notion du mal. Cet article se concentre sur l'impact du millénarisme sur l'expérience congolaise, dans laquelle la réalité quotidienne se traduit constamment en termes mythiques et prophétiques comme interlude prophétique.
    Lame, Danielle de.
  • (Im)possible Belgian Mourning for Rwanda
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rwanda -- Foreign public opinion, Belgian.
    • Genocide -- Rwanda -- Public opinion.
    • Genocide -- Rwanda -- Historiography.
    • Rwanda -- History -- Civil War, 1994 -- Influence.
    • Reconciliation.
    • Public opinion -- Belgium.
    Abstract:
      Rwanda became a Belgian trusteeship under mandate of the Société des Nations after the first World War. With churches playing a prominent role in the political evolution of Rwanda, the two countries were closely bound together. After the 1959 revolution in Rwanda and independence in 1962, development cooperation with strong NGO input still linked them. While the genocide still has tragic influence on the new Rwanda, Belgium has undergone a political process leading to a federal state. The colonial past refers to a national past. Changes in Rwanda and Belgium question any collective attempt of mourning for a past that is very different for all parties involved.
    Résumé:
      Le Rwanda devint une possession de la Belgique sous le mandat de la Société des Nations après la Première Guerre Mondiale. La conséquence du rôle proéminent des églises dans l'évolution politique du Rwanda fut la création de liens étroits entre les deux pays. Après la révolution de 1959 au Rwanda et l'indépendance en 1962, la coopération de développement avec l'impact des ONG ont maintenu ces liens entre les deux pays. Alors que le génocide a aujourd'hui toujours des conséquences sur le Rwanda moderne, la Belgique a, elle, a vécu une transformation politique menant à la formation d'un état fédéral. Le passé colonial se mire dans le passé national. Les transformations du Rwanda et de la Belgique mettent en question toute tentative collective de faire l'expérience du deuil d'un passé commun, vécu de manière très différente par les deux cultures.
    Geschiere, Peter.
  • Funerals and Belonging: Different Patterns in South Cameroon
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    Subject Headings:
    • Funeral rites and ceremonies -- Social aspects -- Cameroon.
    • Group identity -- Cameroon.
    • Cameroon -- Ethnic relations -- Political aspects.
    Abstract:
      The preoccupation with "autochthony" and the exclusion of "strangers" in many parts of present-day Africa, a paradoxical outcome of political liberalization, has given new importance to funerals as an ultimate test of "belonging." However, the link between funerals and belonging is certainly not new. This article compares three different versions of this link from southern Cameroon. In the 1970s, Maka funerals in southeast Cameroon emphasized belonging in terms of local kinship and affinity. In the 1980s, Ewondo funerals in Central Province reaffirmed the belonging of urban elites to their village of origin. In the 1990s, funerals in the Southwest Province revealed the increased political significance of the funeral in the context of a growing preoccupation with autochthony and belonging under democratization. These three examples illustrate the continuing stretching of kinship as it bridges new inequalities and distances. They also raise questions as to its breaking point.
    Résumé:
      La préoccupation du principe d'«autochtonie» et de l'exclusion des "étrangers" dans bien des régions de l'Afrique d'aujourd'hui, une résultante paradoxale de la libéralisation politique, a donné une nouvelle importance aux enterrements et au concept d' "appartenance." Cependant, le lien entre les enterrements et le principe d'appartenance n'est pas nouveau. Cet article compare trois différentes versions de ce lien dans le Cameroun du sud. Dans les années 70, les enterrements Maka dans le sud est du Cameroun mettaient en relief la notion d'appartenance familiale en tant qu'affinité et appartenance locale. Dans les années 80, les enterrements Ewondo dans la province du centre réaffirmaient l'appartenance des élites urbaines à leur village d'origine. Dans les années 90, les enterrements de la province du sud ouest révélaient une préoccupation montante des notions d'«autochtonie» et d'appartenance sous l'avènement de la démocratie dans le pays. Ces trois exemples illustrent l'élargissement continu de la notion d'appartenance familiale en lui faisant rapprocher des communautés de niveau social différents et résidant à distance les unes des autres. Ils posent également la question des limites de la notion d'appartenance familiale.
    White, Bob W.
  • The Political Undead: Is It Possible to Mourn for Mobutu's Zaire?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mobutu Sese Seko, 1930- -- Death and burial.
    • Congo (Democratic Republic) -- Politics and government -- 1997-
    • Memory -- Political aspects -- Congo (Democratic Republic)
    Abstract:
      Following the successful coup d'état of Laurent Kabila's forces in May 1997, the Zairian dictator Mobutu Sese Seko was forced into exile in Morocco, where he died. This article looks at a lively transnational debate about what should be done with the former president's remains, and through this debate reflects on attempts by people in the Congo to determine what version of history should be told and how to understand the impact of Mobutu's political legacy.
    Résumé:
      A la suite du coup d'état réussi des forces de Laurent Kabila en Mai 1997, le dictateur zaïrois Sese Seko Mobutu fut exilé au Maroc, où il est mort. Dans cet essai, je m'intéresse à un débat actif transnational sur la décision à prendre concernant les restes de l'ancien président, et au travers de ce débat, je propose une réflexion sur les tentatives du peuple congolais de déterminer quelle version historique doit être choisie pour comprendre l'impact de l'héritage politique laissé par Mobutu.

    Chipkin, Ivor.
  • The Political Stakes of Academic Research: Perspectives on Johannesburg
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    Subject Headings:
    • Johannesburg (South Africa) -- Research -- Bibliography.
    • Johannesburg (South Africa) -- Research -- Political aspects.
    • Urban policy -- Research -- South Africa -- Johannesburg.
    Abstract:
      This article considers a burgeoning literature on Johannesburg from the perspective of the sorts of questions it asks about the city. There is a substantial and lively literature on questions of poverty and equality, class and race. These studies are strongly informed by the idea that the mechanisms that produce such inequalities are key to understanding the nature of Johannesburg as a city: in terms of how its economy works and how political institutions function, but also in terms of what sort of city Johannesburg is and can be. I consider sociological and economic studies of the inner city that try to account for demographic shifts in the inner city and for processes of social and physical degeneration. I review urban anthropologies of inner-city society, considering in particular new forms of social and economic organization among inner-city residents. Related to these, I discuss debates among scholars about the prospects for governing the city, paying special attention to the consequences for such readings on partnerships. I also discuss an emerging literature, critical of that above, which seeks to shift analysis of the city toward studies of culture and identity. These literatures do not simply approach the city through different disciplinary lenses (sociology or economy or anthropology or cultural studies). They come to their studies from different normative perspectives. For some, the key political question of the day is one about social and political equality in its various forms. For others, it is about the degree to which Johannesburg (or Africa) is different from or the same as other places in the world. This paper has tried to bring to the fore the political (and not simply policy) consequences of these different views. It concludes not by seeking to reconcile these perspectives, but by suggesting a way of retaining a commitment to equality and justice while not reducing them simply to questions of economy. At stake, I argue, are questions of democratic culture and of sociability.
    Résumé:
      Cet article considère la littérature bourgeonnante sur Johannesburg sous l'angle du questionnement qu'elle engendre à propos de la ville. Il existe une littérature vivante et importante sur les questions de pauvreté et d'égalité, de classe et de race. Ces études sont fortement influencées par l'idée que les mécanismes produisant ces inégalités sont des éléments clé pour comprendre l'essence de Johannesburg en tant que ville: comment son économie et ses institutions fonctionnent, mais aussi quelle sorte de ville Johannesburg est et peut devenir. Je prends en considération des études sociologiques et économiques de la ville qui tentent de décrire les évolutions démographiques, ainsi que les processus de dégénération sociale et physique. Je passe en revue des études anthropologiques de la société urbaine, tenant compte en particulier des nouvelles formes d'organisation sociale et économique entre résidents dans la zone urbaine. En corrélation, j'entre en discussion avec les débats des chercheurs concernant les principes de gouvernance de la ville, en portant une attention toute particulière aux conséquences de telles lectures sur les partenariats formés. Je prends également en considération une littérature émergente, critique de celle mentionnée ci dessus, qui cherche à délaisser les études de la ville pour se centrer sur des études culturelles et identitaires. Ces littératures posent non seulement un regard différent sur la ville à travers des disciplines différentes (sociologie et économie ou anthropologie, ou études culturelles), mais elles proviennent surtout de perspectives normatives différentes. Pour certains, la question politique à l'ordre du jour est l'égalité sociale et politique, dans ses différentes formes. Pour d'autres, ce qui importe c'est le degré de conformité ou de différence existant entre Johannesburg (ou l'Afrique) et les autres endroits du monde. Cet article tente de placer sur le devant de la scène les conséquences politiques (et pas seulement législatives) de ces différentes perspectives. Les conclusions apportées ne tentent pas de réconcilier ces approches mais de suggérer une manière de conserver un engagement pour l'égalité et la justice tout en ne les réduisant pas uniquement à des questions économiques. Les notions qui importent vraiment, selon moi, sont les questions de culture démocratique et de sociabilité.
    Kissi, Edward, 1961-
  • Beneath International Famine Relief in Ethiopia: The United States, Ethiopia, and the Debate over Relief Aid, Development Assistance, and Human Rights
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    Subject Headings:
    • Food relief -- Political aspects -- Ethiopia -- History -- 20th century.
    • Famines -- Political aspects -- Ethiopia -- History -- 20th century.
    • Ethiopia -- Foreign relations -- United States.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Ethiopia.
    • Ethiopia -- Foreign relations -- 1974-1991.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1981-1989.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1977-1981.
    Abstract:
      This article analyzes the conflicting interpretations of famine, relief aid, development assistance, and human rights by the Ethiopian and American governments, and the complexity of each government's policy and motives. It argues that in the 1970s and 1980s, the Carter and Reagan administrations faced the moral and political dilemma of assisting people in Ethiopia who were in desperate need without strengthening the hostile Ethiopian government in the process. And the government of Ethiopia had to make the difficult choice of accepting American aid on American terms at a period in Ethiopian history when doing so was politically suicidal. That America provided the aid and Ethiopia accepted it exemplifies the conduct of international relations in which human dignity compels nations to accommodate one another even within the boundaries of their mutual antagonism.
    Résumé:
      Cet essai analyse les interprétations en opposition concernant la famine, l'aide humanitaire, l'assistance au développement, et les droits de l'homme pris en charge par les gouvernements éthiopien et américain, et la complexité des législations et motivations des deux gouvernements. Il est affirmé que dans les années 70 et 80, les gouvernements de Reagan et de Carter ont fait face à des dilemmes moraux et politiques concernant le devoir de soutenir le peuple éthiopien qui avait désespérément besoin d'aide, sans au passage apporter son soutien au gouvernement hostile du pays. De son côté, le gouvernement éthiopien a dû faire le choix difficile d'accepter l'aide du gouvernement américain selon ses termes, à un moment de l'histoire éthiopienne où une telle décision était un suicide politique. Le fait que les États Unis aient proposé leur aide et que l'Éthiopie l'ait acceptée est un exemple probant du principe guidant les relations internationale, selon lequel la notion de dignité humaine conduit les nations à faire des compromis au sein même de leur antagonisme mutuel.

Review Essay

    Philips, John Edward, 1952-
  • The Trouble With Nigeria
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nwachuku, Levi Akalazu, ed. Troubled journey: Nigeria since the civil war.
    • Uzoigwe, G. N., ed.
    • Rotberg, Robert I., ed. Crafting the new Nigeria.
    • Olukotun, Ayo. Repressive state and resurgent media under Nigeria's military dictatorship, 1988-98.
    • Agbu, Osita. Ethnic militias and the threat to democracy in post-transition Nigeria.
    • Tseror, Timothy. Democratic rule in Nigeria.
    • Nigeria -- History -- 1960-
    • Nigeria -- Politics and government -- 1993-

Book Reviews

Anthropology & Sociology

    Roberts, Allen F., 1945-
  • Situating Globality: African Agency in the Appropriation of Global Culture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Binsbergen, Wim M. J. van, ed. Situating globality: African agency in the appropriation of global culture.
    • Dijk, Rijk van, 1959-, ed.
    • Africa -- Civilization -- Congresses.
    Prazak, Miroslava.
  • Ngecha: A Kenyan Village in a Time of Rapid Social Change (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Edwards, Carolyn P., ed. Ngecha: a Kenyan village in a time of rapid social change.
    • Whiting, Beatrice Blyth, ed.
    • Rural development -- Kenya -- Ngecha.
    Ngcoya, Mvuselelo.
  • Respectability and Resistance: A History of Sophiatown (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Goodhew, David, 1965- Respectability and resistance: a history of Sophiatown.
    • Sophiatown (Johannesburg, South Africa) -- History.
    Sparks, Donald L.
  • Tourism in the New South Africa: Social Responsibility and the Tourist Experience (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Allen, Garth. Tourism in the new South Africa: social responsibility and the tourist experience.
    • Brennan, Frank.
    • Ecotourism -- South Africa.
    Miller, Duncan.
  • African Archaeology: A Critical Introduction (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stahl, Ann Brower, 1954-, ed. African archaeology: a critical introduction.
    • Africa -- Antiquities.

Bibliographies & Dictionaries

    Bastian, Misty L., 1955-
  • African Folklore: An Encyclopedia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Peek, Philip M., ed. African folklore: an encyclopedia.
    • Yankah, Kwesi, ed.
    • Folklore -- Africa -- Encyclopedias.

Health & Disease

    Echenberg, Myron J.
  • Health, Power and Politics in Windhoek, Namibia, 1915-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wallace, Marion. Health, power and politics in Windhoek, Namibia, 1915-1945.
    • Social medicine -- Namibia -- History.

History

    Thomas, Lynn M.
  • Images and Empires: Visuality in Colonial and Postcolonial Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Landau, Paul Stuart, 1962-, ed. Images and empires: visuality in colonial and postcolonial Africa.
    • Kaspin, Deborah D., 1953-, ed.
    • Visual anthropology -- Africa.
    Imperato, Pascal James.
  • The Quest for the Secret Nile: Victorian Exploration in Equatorial Africa 1857-1900, and: R. J. Richard John Cuninghame 1871-1925: Naturalist, Hunter, Gentleman (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Yeoman, G. H. (Guy Henry), 1920- Quest for the secret Nile: Victorian exploration in Equatorial Africa 1857-1900.
    • Brown, Monty. R. J. Richard John Cuninghame 1871-1925: naturalist, hunter, gentleman.
    • Nile River Valley -- Discovery and exploration -- British.
    • Cuninghame, R. J.
    Jacobs, Nancy Joy.
  • Re-creating Eden: Land Use, Environment, and Society in Southern Angola and Northern Namibia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kreike, Emmanuel, 1959- Re-creating Eden: land use, environment, and society in southern Angola and northern Namibia.
    • Land tenure -- Environmental aspects -- Angola.
    McClellan, Charles W.
  • Leaf of Allah: Khat and Agricultural Transformation in Harerge, Ethiopia, 1875-1991 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gebissa, Ezekiel. Leaf of Allah: khat and agricultural transformation in Harerge, Ethiopia, 1875-1991.
    • Qat -- Ethiopia -- Harerge Kifle Hager.
    Betowt, Jennifer.
  • Dhows and the Colonial Economy in Zanzibar, 1860-1970 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gilbert, Erik. Dhows and the colonial economy in Zanzibar, 1860-1970.
    • Zanzibar -- Commerce -- History -- 19th century.
    Robinson, David, 1938-
  • Arabic Medieval Inscriptions from the Republic of Mali: Epigraphy, Chronicles and Songhay-Tuareg History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Farias, P. F. de Moraes. Arabic medieval inscriptions from the Republic of Mali: epigraphy, chronicles and Songhay-Tuareg history.
    • Inscriptions, Arabic -- Mali.
    Van Beusekom, Monica M., 1960-
  • Colonial Ambivalence, Cultural Authenticity, and the Limitations of Mimicry in French-Ruled West Africa, 1914-1956 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Genova, James Eskridge. Colonial ambivalence, cultural authenticity, and the limitations of mimicry in French-ruled West Africa, 1914-1956.
    • Africa, French-speaking West -- History -- 1884-1960.

Law & Human Rights

    Penna, David.
  • Justice Gained? Crime and Crime Control in South Africa's Transition (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dixon, Bill, ed. Justice gained?: crime and crime control in South Africa's transition.
    • Van der Spuy, Elrena, ed.
    • Crime -- South Africa.

Literature & Arts

    Saine, Abdoulaye S., 1951-
  • Chinua Achebe, Teacher of Light: A Biography (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sallah, Tijan M., 1958- Chinua Achebe, teacher of light: a biography.
    • Okonjo-Iweala, Ngozi.
    • Achebe, Chinua.
    Imperato, Pascal James.
  • Textiles Bògòlan du Mali, and: Textiles du Mali d'après les collections du Musée National du Mali (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Duponchel, Pauline. Textiles Bògòlan du Mali.
    • Gardi, Bernhard, ed. Textiles du Mali d'après les collections du Musée national du Mali.
    • Musée d'ethnographie (Neuchâtel, Switzerland)
    • Textile fabrics -- Mali -- Exhibitions.
    Wright, Laura, 1970-
  • a.k.a. Breyten Breytenbach: Critical Approaches to His Writings and Paintings (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Coullie, Judith Lütge, ed. a.k.a. Breyten Breytenbach: critical approaches to his writings and paintings.
    • Jacobs, J. U. (Johan U.), ed.
    • Breytenbach, Breyten -- Criticism and interpretation.
    Miller, Christopher L., 1953-
  • The Cambridge History of African and Caribbean Literature (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Irele, Abiola, ed. Cambridge history of African and Caribbean literature.
    • Gikandi, Simon, ed.
    • Literature -- Black authors -- History and criticism.

Politics

    Dale, Richard, 1932-
  • The Constitution at Work: Ten Years of Namibian Nationhood, and: Reexamining Liberation in Namibia: Political Culture since Independence (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Amoo, S. K., ed. Constitution at work: ten years of Namibian nationhood.
    • Hinz, Manfred O., 1936-, ed.
    • Van Wyk, Dawid Hercules, ed.
    • Melber, Henning, ed. Reexamining liberation in Namibia: political culture since independence.
    • Nationalism -- Namibia -- Congresses.
    • Political culture -- Namibia -- Congresses.
    Ngcoya, Mvuselelo.
  • Mandela's World: The International Dimension of South Africa's Political Revolution 1990-1999 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Barber, James P. Mandela's world: the international dimension of South Africa's political revolution 1990-1999.
    • South Africa -- Foreign relations -- 1994-
    Scott, Catherine V. (Catherine Virginia)
  • Readings in African Politics (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Young, Tom, ed. Readings in African politics.
    • Africa -- Politics and government -- 1960-
    Harbeson, John W. (John Willis), 1938-
  • Through Fire with Water: The Roots of Division and the Potential for Reconciliation in Africa, and: Shadows of War: Violence, Power, and International Profiteering in the Twenty-First Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Doxtader, Erik, ed. Through fire with water: the roots of division and the potential for reconciliation in Africa.
    • Villa-Vicencio, Charles, ed.
    • Nordstrom, Carolyn, 1953- Shadows of war: violence, power, and international profiteering in the twenty-first century.
    • Africa -- History, Military -- Case studies.
    • War and society.
    Abrahamsen, Rita, 1966-
  • Democratic Reform in Africa: The Quality of Progress (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gyimah-Boadi, Emmanuel, ed. Democratic reform in Africa: the quality of progress.
    • Democracy -- Africa.
    Carlson, Andrew J.
  • The Culture of Power in Contemporary Ethiopian Political Life (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Vaughan, Sarah. Culture of power in contemporary Ethiopian political life.
    • Tronvoll, Kjetil.
    • Political culture -- Ethiopia.
    Quinn, John James, 1959-
  • Multi-party Elections in Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cowen, Michael, ed. Multi-party elections in Africa.
    • Laakso, Liisa, ed.
    • Elections -- Africa, Sub-Saharan.
    Zuern, Elke.
  • Overcoming Intolerance in South Africa: Experiments in Democratic Persuasion (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gibson, James L., 1951- Overcoming intolerance in South Africa: experiments in democratic persuasion.
    • Gouws, Amanda, 1959-
    • Political culture -- South Africa.
    Penna, David.
  • Political Identity and Social Change: The Remaking of the South African Social Order (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Frueh, Jamie, 1966- Political identity and social change: the remaking of the South African social order.
    • Social change -- South Africa.

Religion

    Booker, Sheriden.
  • Santeria: The Beliefs and Rituals of a Growing Religion in America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • De La Torre, Miguel A. Santeria: the beliefs and rituals of a growing religion in America.
    • Santeria.

Correction




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