African Studies Review

African Studies Review
Volume 48, Number 1, April 2005

CONTENTS

    Barnes, Sandra T.
  • Global Flows: Terror, Oil, and Strategic Philanthropy
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    Subject Headings:
    • United States -- Military relations -- Africa -- Press coverage.
    • Africa -- Military relations -- United States -- Press coverage.
    • Economic assistance, American -- Africa -- Press coverage.
    • Mass media and international relations -- United States.
    • Mass media and business -- United States.
    Abstract:
      U.S. involvement in Africa is growing following threats of terrorism and interruptions in oil production and because of desires by foreign corporations to expand their activities on the continent. The response of American policymakers has been to establish a stronger military presence that will engage in counterterrorism initiatives and police oil installations. The goals and extent of this buildup, and the ideology legitimating it, are new. They are departures from Cold War policies. Similarly, the response of American business leaders to weaknesses in the infrastructure and political order of African states leads them to establish their own forms of community development, known as strategic philanthropy, so as to protect and expand local markets. Despite these major developments, the media are not informing the public. This article examines the implications of these military and business initiatives for African nations and the reasons for lack of information about them.

    Résumé:
      L'implication américaine en Afrique se renforce aujourd'hui, suite aux menaces terroristes et aux interruptions de la production de pétrole, aussi bien qu'à l'intérêt d'entreprises étrangères d'étendre leurs activités sur le continent. La stratégie adoptée par les politiques américains en réponse à ces développements a été d'établir une présence militaire plus importante, pour participer aux initiatives antiterroristes et à la protection des installations pétrolières. Les objectifs et la portée de ces actions ainsi que l'idéologie sous-jacente sont nouveaux. Ils constituent une stratégie différente, se démarquant de celles adoptées lors de la guerre froide. De même, la réponse des chefs d'entreprise américains aux faiblesses de l'infrastructure et de l'ordre politique des états africains amènent les politiques américains à établir leur propre forme de développement communautaire, connu sous le nom de philanthropie stratégique, et destiné à protéger et étendre les marchés locaux. En dépit de ces développements majeurs, les médias n'informent pas le public. Cet essai examine les implications de ces initiatives militaires et économiques pour les nations africaines ainsi que les raisons du manque d'information à leur sujet.
    Miller, Ivor.
  • Cuban Abakuá Chants: Examining New Linguistic and Historical Evidence for the African Diaspora
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    Subject Headings:
    • Blacks -- Cuba -- Music.
    • Chants -- Cuba.
    • Efik (African people) -- Music.
    • Ejagham (African people) -- Music.
    Abstract:
      The Cuban Abakuá society—derived from the Èfìk Ékpè and Ejagham Úgbè societies of southeastern Nigeria and southwestern Cameroon—was founded in Havana in the 1830s by captured leaders of Cross River villages. This paper examines the process by which West African Ékpè members were able to understand contemporary Cuban Abakuá chants, and indicates how these texts may be used as historical documents. This methodology involves first recording and interpreting Abakuá chants with Cuban elders, and then interpreting these same chants with the aid of West African Èfìk speakers. The correlation of data in these chants with those in documents created by Europeans and Africans from the eighteenth to twentieth centuries indicates a vocabulary that includes many geographic and ethnic names and an occasional historical figure. These examples may lead to a reevaluation of the extent to which African identity and culture were transmitted during the trans-Atlantic diaspora. Abakuá intellectuals have used commercial recordings to extol their history and ritual lineages. Evidence indicates that Cuban Abakuá identity is based on detailed knowledge of ritual lineages stemming from specific locations in their homelands, and not upon a vague notion of an African "national" or "ethnic" identity. The persistence of the Abakuá society contradicts the official construction of a Cuban national identity.
    Résumé:
      La communauté cubaine Abakuá—descendante des communautés Èfìk Ékpè et Ejagham Úgbè du Sud Est du Nigéria et du Sud Ouest du Cameroun—a été fondée à la Havane dans les années 1830 par des leaders capturés des villages de Cross River. Cet essai examine le processus par lequel les membres de la communauté Ékpè d'Afrique de l'Ouest ont été capables de comprendre les chants de la communauté Abakuá moderne de Cuba, et montre comment ces textes pourraient être utilisés comme documents historiques. La méthodologie utilisée a consisté en un premier temps à enregistrer et interpréter les chants Abakuá avec les anciens de la communauté cubaine, puis à interpréter les mêmes chants avec les membres de la communauté Èfìk d'Afrique de l'Ouest. La corrélation entre les éléments de ces chants et ceux des documents produits par les Européens et les Africains entre le dix-huitième et le vingtième siècle aboutit à un glossaire comprenant beaucoup de noms géographiques et ethniques, et occasionnellement, des personnalités historiques. Ces exemples pourraient mener à une réévaluation de l'étendue de la transmission de l'identité et de la culture africaines lors de la diaspora trans-Atlantique. Les intellectuels de la communauté Abakuá ont jusqu'à présent utilisé des enregistrements commerciaux pour mettre en valeur leur histoire et les origines de leurs rituels. Il est possible de démontrer que l'identité Abakuá cubaine est basée sur une connaissance détaillée de l'origine des rituels provenant de locations spécifiques dans leurs pays d'origine, et non sur la notion vague d'une identité "ethnique" ou "nationale" africaine. La persistance de la communauté Abakuá constitue une résistance à la construction officielle d'une identité nationale cubaine.
    Li, Anshan, 1953-
  • African Studies in China in the Twentieth Century: A Historiographical Survey
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    Subject Headings:
    • Africa -- Study and teaching -- China -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article surveys African studies in China during the twentieth century. It is divided into five parts: "Sensing Africa" (1900–1949), "Supporting Africa" (1949–65), "Understanding Africa" (1966–76), and "Studying Africa" (1977–2000). From a Chinese perspective, the author tells how, when, and why Chinese scholars have conducted their research on Africa according to paradigms that evolved during the last century. In conclusion, the author points out the achievements as well as the problems in African studies in China today.
    Résumé:
      Cet article propose un aperçu des études africaines menées en Chine au cours du vingtième siècle. Il est divisé en cinq parties: «Approcher l'Afrique» (1900-1949), «Soutenir l'Afrique» (1949-65), «Comprendre l'Afrique» (1966-76) et «Étudier l'Afrique» (1977-2000). A partir d'une perspective chinoise, l'auteur examine comment, quand, et pourquoi les chercheurs chinois ont mené leur recherche sur l'Afrique, selon des paradigmes qui ont évolué au cours du siècle. En conclusion, l'auteur souligne les succès et les difficultés rencontrés par les études africaines en Chine aujourd'hui.
    Schler, Lynn.
  • History, the Nation-State, and Alternative Narratives: An Example from Colonial Douala
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nationalism -- Cameroon -- Douala -- History -- 20th century.
    • Immigrants -- Cameroon -- Douala -- History -- 20th century.
    • Duala (African people)
    • New Bell (Douala, Cameroon) -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article examines processes of community-building in the immigrant quarter of New Bell, Douala, during the interwar years. Historians of Douala have overlooked the history of New Bell, focusing instead on the political and economic activity of Duala's Westernized elite during this period. This historiographic oversight reflects a preoccupation with elite politics identified as the seeds of nationalism in Cameroon. An examination of the community of immigrants provides us with an alternative conceptualization of a multiethnic collective. By tracing the construction and evolution of public space in interwar New Bell, we can uncover elements of group solidarity binding together this highly diverse population.
    Résumé:
      Cet article examine les processus d'organisation communautaire dans le quartier immigrant de New Bell à Douala, pendant les années d'entre guerres. Les historiens de Douala ont négligé l'Histoire du quartier de New Bell, se concentrant plutôt sur l'activité politique et économique de l'élite occidentale de Douala pendant cette période. Cet oubli reflète une préoccupation de l'élite politique identifiée comme étant à l'origine du nationalisme au Cameroun. Une analyse de la communauté immigrante nous offre une conceptualisation alternative d'une collectivité multiethnique. En retraçant la construction et l'évolution de l'espace publique dans le New Bell de l'entre guerres, nous pouvons mettre en lumière les éléments d'une solidarité de groupe liant de manière solide cette population hautement diversifiée.
    Whitaker, Beth Elise.
  • Citizens and Foreigners: Democratization and the Politics of Exclusion in Africa
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    Subject Headings:
    • Democratization -- Côte d'Ivoire.
    • Citizenship -- Côte d'Ivoire.
    • Democratization -- Zambia.
    • Citizenship -- Zambia.
    Abstract:
      In the ongoing context of political liberalization, many African leaders have adopted the rhetoric of democracy while at the same time devising ways to limit political competition. This article focuses on one such strategy: the effort to disqualify or discredit political opponents based on challenges to their citizenship. In recent years, several African leaders have initiated court cases and produced evidence to question the right of opposition candidates and other critics to participate in the political process. By examining specific examples in Côte d'Ivoire, Zambia, and elsewhere, the article explores the implications of this strategy. While citizenship rights are clearly important in any democracy, their explicit manipulation for the ruling party's political purposes is a risky approach that threatens to slow or even reverse the process of democratization. In the end, a tactic initially designed to exclude specific individuals from the political process has the potential of fueling broader xenophobic sentiments and legitimizing exclusionary nation-building strategies. At best, the resulting widening of social cleavages reduces the likelihood of democratic consolidation. At worst, it plants the seeds for future political conflict and possibly even war.
    Résumé:
      Dans le contexte présent de libéralisme politique grandissant, bien des leaders africains ont adopté un discours démocratique tout en cherchant les moyens de limiter la compétition politique. Cet article traite principalement de la stratégie adoptée consistant à discréditer ou disqualifier les opposants politiques sur des attaques liées à leur citoyenneté. Depuis quelques années, plusieurs leaders africains ont initié des procès et montré des pièces à conviction destinés à mettre en question le droit de participation à la scène politique de certains candidats de l'opposition ou d'autres critiques. A travers l'analyse d'exemples spécifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Zambie, et ailleurs, cet article explore les implications d'une telle stratégie. Bien que les droits de citoyenneté ont une importance certaine dans toute démocratie, toute manipulation de ceux-ci par le parti au pouvoir pour des objectifs politiques constitue une approche risquée, menaçant de ralentir ou même d'entraver le processus de démocratisation. Au final, une tactique initialement prévue pour exclure des individus spécifiques de la scène politique a le potentiel d'encourager des sentiments xénophobes plus larges et de légitimer des stratégies nationalistes exclusives. Au mieux, l'élargissement résultant des clivages sociaux limitera la possibilité de consolidation démocratique. Au pire, cette stratégie plante les racines de conflits politiques futurs et possiblement d'une guerre.

Review Essays

    Martin, Guy, 1945-
  • Conflict in the Congo: Historical and Regional Perspectives
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gondola, Ch. Didier, 1966- History of Congo.
    • Dunn, Kevin C., 1967- Imagining the Congo: the international relations of identity.
    • Braeckman, Colette, 1946- Lumumba, un crime d'etat.
    • Braeckman, Colette, 1946- Nouveaux prédateurs: politique des puissances en Afrique centrale.
    • Martens, Ludo. Kabila et la révolution congolaise: panafricanisme ou néocolonialisme.
    • Adelman, Howard, 1938-, ed. War and peace in Zaire/Congo: analyzing and evaluating intervention: 1996-1997.
    • Rao, Govind C., ed.
    • Congo (Democratic Republic) -- History.
    • Congo (Democratic Republic) -- Relations -- Foreign countries.
    Mednicoff, David.
  • State and Society in the Maghreb
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    Subject Headings:
    • Garon, Lise, 1943- Dangerous alliances: civil society, the media and democratic transition in North Africa.
    • King, Stephen J. (Stephen Juan), 1961- Liberalization against democracy: the local politics of economic reform in Tunisia.
    • Africa, North -- Politics and government.
    • Democracy -- Tunisia.
    Rogers, Peter J.
  • Africa, Africanists, and Wildlife Conservation
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    Subject Headings:
    • Duffy, Rosaleen. Killing for conservation: wildlife policy in Zimbabwe.
    • Hulme, David, ed. African wildlife and livelihoods: the promise and performance of community conservation.
    • Murphree, Marshall W., ed.
    • Weber, William, 1950-, ed. African rain forest ecology and conservation.
    • Wildlife conservation -- Government policy -- Zimbabwe.
    • Wildlife conservation -- Africa -- Citizen participation.
    Showers, Kate Barger.
  • African Environments: Imagined and Real
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    Subject Headings:
    • Moseley, William G., ed. African environment and development: rhetoric, programs and realities.
    • Logan, Bernard Ikubolajeh, ed.
    • Beinart, William, ed. Social history and African environments.
    • McGregor, JoAnn, ed.
    • Economic development -- Environmental aspects -- Africa.
    • Human ecology -- Africa -- History.

Book Reviews

Anthropology & Sociology

    Miller, Duncan R., 1941-
    Smith, Andrew B. (Andrew Brown), 1941-
  • Climate Change, Trade and Modes of Production in Sub-Saharan Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Chami, Felix, ed. Climate change, trade and modes of production in sub-Saharan Africa.
    • Pwiti, Gilbert, ed.
    • Radimilahy, Marie de Chantal, ed.
    • Archaeology -- Africa, Sub-Saharan.
    LaViolette, Adria Jean.
  • Southern Africa and the Swahili World (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Chami, Felix, ed. Southern Africa and the Swahili world.
    • Pwiti, Gilbert, ed.
    • Africa, Southern -- Antiquities.
    Niehaus, Isak A. (Isak Arnold)
  • Beyond Rationalism: Rethinking Magic, Witchcraft and Sorcery (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kapferer, Bruce, ed. Beyond rationalism: rethinking magic, witchcraft and sorcery.
    • Witchcraft -- Cross-cultural studies.

Health & Disease

    Imperato, Pascal James.
  • Lords of the Fly: Sleeping Sickness Control in British East Africa, 1900-1960 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hoppe, Kirk Arden. Lords of the fly: sleeping sickness control in British East Africa, 1900-1960.
    • African trypanosomiasis -- Africa, East -- History -- 20th century.
    Richards, Sarah C. (Sarah Catherine)
  • Local Women, Global Science: Fighting AIDS in Kenya (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Booth, Karen M., 1962- Local women, global science: fighting AIDS in Kenya.
    • AIDS (Disease) -- Kenya.

History

    Bogosian, Catherine Mornane.
  • Negotiating Development: African Farmers and Colonial Experts at the Office du Niger, 1920-1960 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Van Beusekom, Monica M., 1960- Negotiating development: African farmers and colonial experts at the Office du Niger, 1920-1960.
    • Agricultural colonies -- Mali -- History.
    MacEachern, Scott.
  • "The Pygmies Were Our Compass": Bantu and Batwa in the History of West Central Africa, Early Times to c. 1900 C.E. (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Klieman, Kairn A., 1962- "Pygmies were our compass": Bantu and Batwa in the history of west central Africa, early times to c. 1900 C.E.
    • Batwa (African people) -- History.
    Welch, Ashton W.
  • An Ordinary Atrocity: Sharpeville and Its Massacre, and: The Assassin: A Story of Race and Rage in the Land of Apartheid (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Frankel, Philip H. Ordinary atrocity: Sharpeville and its massacre.
    • Woerden, Henk van, 1947- Assassin: a story of race and rage in the land of apartheid.
    • Jacobson, Dan, tr.
    • Sharpeville Massacre, Sharpeville, South Africa, 1960.
    • Tsafendas, Demitrios, 1918-1999.
    Parsons, Timothy, 1962-
  • The Forgotten Front: The East African Campaign 1914-1918 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Anderson, Ross. Forgotten front: the East African campaign 1914-1918.
    • World War, 1914-1918 -- Campaigns -- Africa, Eastern.
    Souza, Marina de Mello e.
    Graham, Sandra L., tr.
  • Enslaving Connections: Changing Cultures of Africa and Brazil during the Era of Slavery (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Curto, José C., ed. Enslaving connections: changing cultures of Africa and Brazil during the era of slavery.
    • Lovejoy, Paul E., ed.
    • Slavery -- Brazil -- Congresses.
    Bogosian, Catherine Mornane.
  • Planting Rice and Harvesting Slaves: Transformations along the Guinea-Bissau Coast, 1400-1900 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hawthorne, Walter. Planting rice and harvesting slaves: transformations along the Guinea-Bissau coast, 1400-1900.
    • Slave trade -- Guinea-Bissau -- Atlantic Coast -- History.
    MacGonagle, Elizabeth.
  • Slavery and Beyond: The Making of Men and Chikunda Ethnic Identities in the Unstable World of South-Central Africa, 1750-1920 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Isaacman, Allen F. Slavery and beyond: the making of men and Chikunda ethnic identities in the unstable world of south-central Africa, 1750-1920.
    • Isaacman, Barbara.
    • Kunda (African people) -- History.
    Larkin, Diana Wolfe.
  • Encounters with Ancient Egypt (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ucko, Peter J. (Peter John), 1938-, ed. Encounters with ancient Egypt.
    • Egypt -- Civilization -- To 332 B.C.
    Larkin, Diana Wolfe.
  • Imhotep Today: Egyptianizing Architecture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Humbert, Jean-Marcel, 1947-, ed. Imhotep today: Egyptianizing architecture.
    • Price, C. A., ed.
    • Egyptian revival (Architecture) -- Congresses.
    Kendall, Timothy, 1945-
  • Ancient Egypt in Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • O'Connor, David B., ed. Ancient Egypt in Africa.
    • Reid, Andrew, 1963-, ed.
    • Egypt -- Civilization -- To 332 B.C.

Law and Human Rights

    Walraven, Klaas van, 1958-
  • Africa: Selected Documents on Constitutive, Conflict and Security, Humanitarian, and Judicial Issues (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Levitt, Jeremy I., 1970-, ed. Africa: selected documents on constitutive, conflict and security, humanitarian, and judicial issues.
    • Africa -- Foreign relations -- Treaties.

Literature and the Arts

    Gugler, Josef.
  • Africa Shoots Back: Alternative Perspectives in Sub-Saharan Francophone Film (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Thackway, Melissa. Africa shoots back: alternative perspectives in Sub-Saharan Francophone film.
    • Motion pictures -- Africa, French-speaking.
    Cancel, Robert.
  • Critical Essays on Bessie Head (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sample, Maxine J. Cornish, ed. Critical essays on Bessie Head.
    • Head, Bessie, 1937- -- Criticism and interpretation.
    Gueye, Abdoulaye.
  • The Practice of Diaspora: Literature, Translation, and the Rise of Black Internationalism (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Edwards, Brent Hayes. Practice of diaspora: literature, translation, and the rise of Black internationalism.
    • Literature -- Black authors -- History and criticism.
    Vogl, Mary B., 1967-
  • South of the Sahara: Selected Works of African Art (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Petridis, Constantijn. South of the Sahara: selected works of African art.
    • Art, African.
    Strother, Z. S.
  • Dan Ge Performance: Masks and Music in Contemporary Côte d'Ivoire (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Reed, Daniel B. (Daniel Boyce), 1963- Dan Ge performance: masks and music in contemporary Côte d'Ivoire.
    • Dan (African people) -- Rites and ceremonies.

Memoirs & Biography

    Blyden, Nemata Amelia, 1964-
  • African-American Exploration in West Africa: Four Nineteenth-Century Diaries (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fairhead, James, 1962-, ed. African-American exploration in West Africa: four nineteenth-century diaries.
    • Seymour, George L.
    • Sims, James L.
    • Anderson, Benjamin J. K., b. 1834.
    • Liberia -- Discovery and exploration.
    Vickers, Michael.
  • Good Second Class: Memories of a Generalist Overseas Administrator (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Clark, Trevor. Good second class: memories of a generalist overseas administrator.
    • Clark, Trevor.
    Robertson, Claire C., 1944-
  • Hustling Is Not Stealing: Stories of an African Bar Girl (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Chernoff, John Miller. Hustling is not stealing: stories of an African bar girl.
    • Women -- Ghana -- Social conditions.

Politics

    Gondwe, Derrick K.
  • The Failure of the United Nations Development Programs for Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ratsimbaharison, Adrien M. Failure of the United Nations development programs for Africa.
    • United Nations Programme of Action for African Economic Recovery and Development.
    Martin, Guy, 1945-
  • Pan-African History: Political Figures from Africa and the Diaspora since 1787 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Adi, Hakim. Pan-African history: political figures from Africa and the Diaspora since 1787.
    • Sherwood, Marika.
    • Pan-Africanism -- History.
    Abraham, Arthur, 1945-
  • Local Governance in Africa: The Challenges of Democratic Governance (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Olowu, Dele. Local governance in Africa: the challenges of democratic governance.
    • Wunsch, James S. (James Stevenson), 1946-
    • Ayee, Joseph R. A., 1952-
    • Local government -- Africa.
    Vandeneycken, Arlette.
  • Accounting for Horror: Post-Genocide Debates in Rwanda (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eltringham, Nigel. Accounting for horror: post-genocide debates in Rwanda.
    • Genocide -- Rwanda.
    Janis, Michael.
  • A Continent for the Taking: The Tragedy and Hope of Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • French, Howard W. Continent for the taking: the tragedy and hope of Africa.
    • Africa, Sub-Saharan -- Description and travel.
    Lee, Christopher J.
  • A Democracy of Chameleons: Politics and Culture in the New Malawi (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Englund, Harri, ed. Democracy of chameleons: politics and culture in the new Malawi.
    • Malawi -- Politics and government -- 1964-
    Wallace, Molly.
  • Conflict Resolution and Peace Education in Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Uwazie, Ernest E., 1960-, ed. Conflict resolution and peace education in Africa.
    • Conflict management -- Africa.
    Martin, Guy, 1945-
  • The Populist Dimension to African Political Thought: Critical Essays in Reconstruction and Retrieval (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Idahosa, P. L. E. Populist dimension to African political thought: critical essays in reconstruction and retrieval.
    • Political science -- Africa -- History -- 20th century.

Religion

    Imperato, Pascal James.
  • The Steamer Parish: The Rise and Fall of Missionary Medicine on an African Frontier (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Good, Charles M. Steamer parish: the rise and fall of missionary medicine on an African frontier.
    • Universities' Mission to Central Africa -- History.
    Imperato, Pascal James.
  • Christianity Among the Nomads: The Catholic Church in Northern Kenya (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tablino, Paolo. Christianity among the Nomads: the Catholic Church in northern Kenya.
    • Catholic Church -- Kenya -- History.

Women & Gender

    Hodgson, Dorothy Louise.
  • Politics of the Womb: Women, Reproduction, and the State in Kenya (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Thomas, Lynn M. Politics of the womb: women, reproduction, and the state in Kenya.
    • Women -- Kenya -- History.

Books Received




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