Africa Today

Africa Today 48.2, Summer 2001

Contents

Articles

    Boone, Catherine.
    Batsell, Jake.
  • Politics and AIDS in Africa: Research Agendas in Political Science and International Relations
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    Subject Headings:
    • AIDS (Disease) -- Political aspects -- Africa.
    • AIDS (Disease) -- Government policy -- Africa.
    • International relations.
    Abstract:
      Political Science as an academic discipline has been slow to grapple with the enormous implications of the AIDS crisis for much of the developing world. This article argues that important research agendas link AIDS and politics, and that more work in these areas could contribute to the struggle to cope with the pandemic. Research could also yield theoretical advances in the field of political science. Five research agendas for Africa are: variations in state response to the pandemic; the relationship between governments and NGOs; the AIDS challenge to neoliberalism; AIDS and North-South tensions; and connections between AIDS and international security issues.
    Fair, Jo Ellen, 1960-
    Parks, Lisa.
  • Africa on Camera: Television News Coverage and Aerial Imaging of Rwandan Refugees
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    Subject Headings:
    • Television broadcasting of news -- Social aspects -- Rwanda.
    • Rwanda -- History -- Civil War, 1994 -- Refugees.
    • Genocide -- Rwanda.
    Abstract:
      Television news and aerial images were used to monitor refugees' movements in 1996 when Hutu refugees were forced to flee encampments in Eastern Zaire/Congo. Television coverage gave viewers close-up, seemingly personalized accounts of the lives of refugees. Aerial photos rendered them as anonymous masses whose movements and containment in camps could be tracked from a distance. This paper analyzes the television coverage of the four major U.S. news outlets and aerial images of Rwandan refugee movements made available on the Federation of American Scientists (FAS) website. The study examines both on-the-ground perspectives of television news cameras, as well as aerial images, because together they provided the dual vantage points that increasingly are used to manage global crises and media events: the human tragedy at close range and the long-range impression from afar. The analysis thus explores how news and aerial images represented refugees as a deterritorialized mass unanchored from Rwanda's 1994 genocide.
    Judson, Fred.
  • The Dynamics of Transition Governance in South Africa: Voices from Mpumalanga
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    Subject Headings:
    • South Africa -- Politics and government -- 1994-
    • African National Congress.
    • South Africa -- Economic policy.
    Abstract:
      The broad premise of the article is that South Africa's national experiences encapsulate the currents and contradictions of the twentieth century across the range of the world's states and societies. Hence, South Africa's transitions and governance are worthy of representative examination. Concentrating on the Province of Mpumalanga, the author seeks to identify the political resources African National Congress/Umkonto We Sizwe (ANC/MK) cadres now in government bring to the tasks at hand: democratization, development, and dealing with the multiple social, political and economic legacies of apartheid. On the basis of cadre interviews, the article discusses the contradictions, limitations, and challenges of ANC governance after the 1994 election and for the current period. The dimensions of that governance are: South African society and its realities; a capitalist economy and its social values; democratic politics, policy making and policy delivery. It is argued that the governance of transition and the circumstances of governance are in flux, with the overall quality of positive dynamics.
    Lanegran, Kimberly.
  • South Africa's 1999 Election: Consolidating a Dominant Party System
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    Subject Headings:
    • Elections -- South Africa.
    • South Africa -- Politics and government -- 1994-
    • Political parties -- South Africa.
    Abstract:
      This article examines the degree to which democracy is consolidating in South Africa with a study of the nature of the country's political party system. With particular attention to the behavior of opposition parties during the Mandela administration and the campaigns for the 1999 national and provincial elections, it questions whether the African National Congress will face any serious electoral competition in the near future. Mixed evidence concerning the prospects for a truly competitive party system is presented. Data sources include national and regional opinion surveys and interviews; trends are highlighted via case studies of the Western Cape Province and town of George.
    Molefe, Dorcas.
    Weeks, Sheldon G.
  • National Service--is it a Thirteenth Year of Education? The Rise and Fall of an Innovation in Botswana
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tirelo Setshaba Evaluation Team (Botswana)
    • Education, Higher -- Botswana -- History -- 20th century.
    • Educational innovations -- Botswana -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Tirelo Setshaba (TS), a form of national service, served to expose O-level graduates to the realities of their own society--the conditions and lifeways of people in rural and remote areas--by providing a bridging year for matriculating to tertiary education, with the intention of making their participation in continuing education more effective. As a thirteenth year in a twelve-year educational system, the government of Botswana also designed national service to promote self-development, cross-cultural exposure, and to build work experience for its participants. Of these goals, the key site of interaction was cross-cultural. Inspired by study service in Asia and the youth service scheme in Guyana, TS placed participants with user departments, on individual assignments in primary schools, rural clinics, with the kgotla (local government), and many others. The program expanded rapidly, to a plateau of 850 participants from 1986 to 1990, and again to a plateau of 6,250 participants between 1994 and 1998. Its costs rose from a few thousand US dollars per annum to over 10 million in 1997.

      In 1998, the Botswana government decided that TS would have its last intake in April 1999 and terminate it in April 2000. The government perceived national service as a program that "'triple benefited" a small, elite minority of youth, but neglected the majority of youth (83% of the age group). At the same time Namibia and South Africa were planning to introduce a form of national service, too. Our main findings reveal that, while failing to implement the key educational components that had been originally planned in the early 1980s, the majority of the participants (80%) valued their experience highly and thus equated it to a successful thirteenth year. Those opposed to national service felt that it was a waste of time, and that it delayed their tertiary education. As one participant wrote in his work diary, TS was as "a year of forgetting, rather than learning." Originally designed as an elite program, mainly for those who would go on to tertiary education, TS was terminated ostensibly because of its high costs and loss of relevance. The small group of decision makers in Botswana, however, no longer wanted their children to participate in national service.

    Umar, Muhammad Said.
  • Education and Islamic Trends in Northern Nigeria: 1970-1990s
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    Subject Headings:
    • Education -- Nigeria -- History -- 20th century.
    • Islam and politics -- Nigeria -- History -- 20th century.
    • Political culture -- Nigeria -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Recognizably different Islamic trends in contemporary Northern Nigeria can be described in terms of traditionalism, modernism, and fundamentalism, and each trend can be correlated to a different educational background as well as a different political orientation. Within the last two decades, each of these trends has changed, with traditionalism shifting toward modernism, and modernism becoming fundamentalism, while fundamentalism faces imminent transformation in uncertain directions. Although handy for analyzing different trends, traditionalism, modernism, and fundamentalism should be recognized as discursive categories that are capable of not only revealing but also erasing subtleties, linkages and nuances of constantly changing social movements.

Book Reviews

    Kalu, Kalu Ndukwe.
  • International Relations in Contemporary Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Anda, Michael O. International relations in contemporary Africa.
    • Africa, West -- Foreign relations.
    Martin, Guy, 1945-
  • Regionalisation in Africa: Integration and Disintegration (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bach, Daniel, ed. Regionalisation in Africa: integration and disintegration.
    • Africa, Sub-Saharan -- Politics and government -- 1960-
    McGovern, Mike.
  • History, Power, Ideology: Central Issues in Marxism and Anthropology (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Donham, Donald L. (Donald Lewis) History, power, ideology: central issues in Marxism and anthropology.
    • Economic anthropology.
    Massaro, Richard J.
  • Politicians and Poachers: The Political Economy of Wildlife Policy in Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gibson, Clark C., 1961- Politicians and poachers: the political economy of wildlife policy in Africa.
    • Wildlife conservation -- Government policy -- Africa.
    Sparks, Donald L.
  • Contending Issues in African Development: Advances, Challenges, and the Future (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Iheduru, Obioma M., ed. Contending issues in African development: advances, challenges, and the future.
    • Africa -- Economic policy.
    Copson, Raymond W.
  • Reference Guide to Africa: A Bibliography of Sources (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kagan, Alfred. Reference guide to Africa: a bibliography of sources.
    • Scheven, Yvette.
    • Africa -- Bibliography.
    Mirzeler, Mustafa.
  • The History of Islam in Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Levtzion, Nehemia, ed. History of Islam in Africa.
    • Pouwels, Randall Lee, 1944-, ed.
    • Islam -- Africa -- History.
    Doro, Marion E.
  • Women in African Economies: From Burning Sun to Boardroom (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Snyder, Margaret C., 1929- Women in African economies: from burning sun to boardroom.
    • Women-owned business enterprises -- Uganda.



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