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178 Appendix B Expanded List and Definitions of What and Why Categories 1. Assessment Assess student learning needs (language and prior knowledge) or social and emotional needs, and readiness for independence and participation . Decide which source of visual input is most important. Prioritizing. 2. Beyond interpreting Get attention, help/tutor/explain, make sure student knows where to look for visual access, make sure student knows who is speaking, chat, build rapport, provide reinforcement/praise/ encouragement, redirect/discipline, consult, teach signs or strategies for using interpreters, and interact with others. 3. Concern re: interpreting text Consider factors related to interpreting audible text (read-alouds, captions) when interpreting alone all day—mental and physical fatigue, repetitive motion injury, text density and rate of delivery, time to process vs. class timing, visual access, social stigma, reading level, accountability , etc. 4. Consistency Use knowledge of teacher, student, and course content from previous classes to make decisions appropriate to the context of the classroom. Consistency helps to ensure interpreters’ choices are well aligned with teacher norms and student needs in the specified context. 5. Consultation/ collaboration Inform staff about needs of the deaf and hard of hearing students; collaborate with teacher and brainstorm ideas. More Than Meets the Eye_Appendix B.indd 178 More Than Meets the Eye_Appendix B.indd 178 10/11/13 7:30 AM 10/11/13 7:30 AM Appendix B : 179 6. Deliberate omission Decide NOT to interpret what is being said— often during discussion between the Deaf student and the interpreter, or when students need time to look at something or continue their own work. When discourse is overlapping—interpreter stays with the most prominent or relevant discourse stream, usually the teacher, and omits another. 7. Discipline, esp. redirecting Discipline (e.g., awarding or deducting points when students misbehave (hearing and Deaf). Seen as extreme. Most common = redirecting off-task students. 8. Different track Decide to be somewhere the teacher is not, often comparable or parallel in nature. 9. Dilemma/ hidden premise Express conflict among student needs, teacher desires, and/or what interpreters are supposed to do. Often related to concerns when interpreting various forms of scripted/printed text. Also working ahead with the student vs. staying with the class because teacher seemed to want them together. 10. Evening the playing field Attempt to create an even playing field so Deaf students have access to the same knowledge (or amount of confusion) as their hearing peers, can participate fully, are included, can interact socially (with peers, teacher/staff, and interpreter). Juxtaposed with desire for teacher not to give preferential treatment, but to have equally high expectations for Deaf students. Balancing appropriate support/adaptation while avoiding giving the answer (e.g., in spelling activities). 11. Filling in gaps Provide background or language-related explanations , especially in terms of what classmates know and can do, while avoiding giving the answer (e.g., in spelling activities). 12. Fingerspelling or spelling Make connections between signed lexicon and English print or scaffolding spelling through the use of fingerspelling. More Than Meets the Eye_Appendix B.indd 179 More Than Meets the Eye_Appendix B.indd 179 10/11/13 7:30 AM 10/11/13 7:30 AM 180 : appendix b 13. Flow/ efficiency Maintain momentum and flow of the class and teacher; avoid distracting or disrupting. Equal value for allowing Deaf students to work uninterrupted . Provide and value time for students to work (e.g., answer questions re: information teacher has already given or generally known rather than have student wait in line). 14. Gender issues Remain sensitive to gender issues—male interpreters working with female students or vice versa, especially for sex education. A female student asked female interpreter for help when she started her first period (trust, safety, and comfort?). 15. Helping other kids Help kids who are not deaf or hard of hearing. Justified as being helpful to an overburdened teacher when Deaf students worked independently , and because they thought it helped Deaf students feel less like they were singled out/ different. 16. Inadequacies of preparation State that formal training did not adequately prepare them for the job. 17. Inclusion and participation Discuss degree to which Deaf students actually participate (or are excused from) class activities /discussions. Express value that students be treated fairly but also offered adaptations for inclusion and active participation in peer and class interactions. 18. Interacting directly with students Participate in social conversation, interact about the task at hand (vs. interpreting into spoken English), co-construct meaning (signs/content...


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