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235 1. Geography, Religion, and Society in Ireland 1. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN) has many good photographs of examples of this (, accessed 7 February 2012). See, for example, /ballymena/BMA05CHUharryville2.htm and /murloy10.htm#murloy10 (accessed 7 February 2012) for photographs from Protestant areas and /fallsmura11.htm#fallsmura11 and http://cain.ulst /muralbattle2.htm#muralbattle2 (accessed 7 February 2012) for photographs from Catholic areas. 2. A. Walsham, The Reformation of the Landscape : Religion, Identity, and Memory in Early Modern Britain and Ireland (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 544–47. 3. A. D. Smith, Chosen Peoples: Sacred Sources of National Identity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 154; and D. H. Akenson, God’s Peoples: Covenant and Land in South Africa , Israel and Ulster (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1992), 183–202. 4. Again, CAIN provides good images at http:// See, for example, /belfast/peaceline/peaceline1.htm#peaceline1 and /peaceline/lanark1.htm#lanark1 (accessed 7 February 2012). 5. D. H. Akenson, Small Differences: Irish Catholics and Irish Protestants 1815–1922 (Montreal : McGill-­ Queen’s University Press; Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1991), 16. 6. D. Ferriter, The Transformation of Ireland 1900–2000 (Lon­ don: Profile Books, 2004), 662–63. 7. These are available as L. A. Clarkson, L. Kennedy, E. M. Crawford, and M. E. Dowling, Database of Irish His­ tori­ cal Statistics 1861–1911 (computer file) (Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor], No­ vem­ ber 1997, study num­ ber 3579); and M. W. Dowling, L. A. Clarkson, L. Kennedy, and E. M. Crawford, Database of Irish His­ tori­ cal Statistics: Census Material, 1901–1971 (computer file) (Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor], May 1998, study number 3542). 8. I. N. Gregory and P. S. Ell, His­tori­cal GIS: Techniques, Methodologies and Scholarship (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 9–12. 9. I. N. Gregory and P. S. Ell, “Breaking the Boundaries: Integrating 200 Years of the Census Using GIS,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A 168 (2005): 419–37. 10. See A. S. Fotheringham, C. Brunsdon, and M. Charlton, Quantitative Geography: Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis (Lon­ don: Sage, 2000) for a general overview. I. N. Gregory, “‘A Map Is Just a Bad Graph’: Why Spatial Statistics Are Important in His­ tori­ cal GIS,” in Placing History : How Maps, Spatial Data and GIS Are Changing His­tori­cal Scholarship, ed. A. K. Knowles (Redlands, Calif.: ESRI Press, 2008), 123–49, describes how these approaches have been used in his­tori­cal studies. 11. R. White, What Is Spatial History?, http://­bin /site/pub.php?id=29 (accessed 25 March 2010). 12. A. R. H. Baker, Geography and History: Bridging the Divide (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). 13. See D. Massey, “Space-­ Time, ‘Science’ and the Relationship between Physical Geography and Human Geography,” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, n.s., 24 (1999): 261–76; and Massey, For Space (Sage: Lon­ don, 2005), for the importance of handling space and time together. See Gregory and Ell, His­tori­cal GIS, chap. 6, for a discussion of how GIS can help to apply this in his­ tori­ cal research. 14. Gregory and Ell, His­tori­cal GIS, 100–105. 15. M. Sutton, An Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland, /book/ (accessed 25 March 2010). 2. The Plantations 1. R. F. Foster, Modern Ireland 1600–1972 (Harmondsworth: Peng­ uin, 1989), 59. 2. G. A. Hayes-­ McCoy, “The Royal Supremacy and Ecclesiastical Revolution, 1534–47,” in A New History of Ireland III: Early Modern Ireland 1534–1691, ed. T. W. Moody, F. X. Martin, and F. J. Byrne (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), 39. 3. A. Cosgrove, “The Gaelic Resurgence and the Geraldine Supremacy, c. 1400–1534,” in The Course of Irish History, ed. T. W. Moody and F. X. Martin, 4th ed. (Cork: Mercier Press, 2001), 133. 4. D. B. Quinn and K. W. Nicholls, “Ireland in 1534,” in Moody, Martin, and Byrne, A New History of Ireland III, 1. 5. G. A. Hayes-­ McCoy, “The Tudor Conquest 1534–1603,” in Moody and Martin, The Course...


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