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N OT ES 255 Introduction 1. “The Splashiest Shopping Center in the U.S.” 2. The Valley Fair Shopping Center in Appleton, Wisconsin, opened in 1955 but was considered a partial enclosure. The term shopping mall was not used until the mid-1960s; until then, shopping centers were said to have malls—that is, green or landscaped areas for walking. 3. Accelerated depreciation dramatically altered the financial calculus of commercial construction . See Hanchett, “U.S. Tax Policy and the Shopping-Center Boom of the 1950s and 1960s.” 4. Gillette, “The Evolution of the Planned Shopping Center in Suburb and City.” 5. Timothy Mennel insightfully discusses this tension of total planning in “Victor Gruen and the Construction of Cold War Utopias.” 6. Marx, The Machine in the Garden, 220. 7. Sert, “Centres of Community Life.” See also Mumford, The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism , 1928–1960. 8. On Macy’s “interior display managers,” see Leach, Land of Desire, 319; Ferry, A History of the Department Store. Standard reference merchandising texts rarely included any discussion of architects. Not until about 1940 was the architectural profession considered in, for instance, Duncan and Phillips, Retailing Principles and Methods. See also Clausen, “The Department Store”; Siry, Carson Pirie Scott, 119–28; Bruegmann, The Architects and the City. 9. The Parsons School of Design began as the New York School of Fine and Applied Arts, with programs such as “advertising display” and “commercial design.” See “Frank A. Parsons, Art Educator, Dies,” New York Times, May 27, 1930, 25. See also Richards, Art in Industry, 251–310. 10. Meikle, Twentieth Century Limited, 50–51; Wilson, Pilgrim, and Tashjian, The Machine Age in America, 1918–1941; Leach, Land of Desire, 307–8. Although many in the architectural profession saw the industrial designers as competition, others in architecture culture did not reject the designers; see Reid, “Walter Dorwin Teague.” See also Marcus, The American Store Window. In the 1920s, Raymond Loewy worked as a “displayman” for Macy’s, and Bel Geddes was the display director of New York City’s Franklin Simon store. See “Window Display by Bel Geddes,” New York Times, August 29, 1927, 20. In Sheldon and Arens, Consumer Engineering , the term consumer engineer is attributed to the famed advertising executive Earnest Elmo Calkins. 11. Woods, From Craft to Profession; Larson, “Emblem and Exception”; Gutman, Architectural Practice. 12. Lebhar, Chain Stores in America. 13. Typical of store treatment was a dispassionate tone and language. See, for instance, Abbott, “The Store Building.” Hunley Abbott was president of Abbott, Merkt, a well-known engineering and architecture firm that took on many commercial projects. 14. See Longstreth, The American Department Store Transformed, 49–59. There were exceptions to the opaque box, such as SOM’s store project for Phoenix, with indoor/outdoor spaces worthy of a study by Theo van Doesburg. See Owings, “Economics of Department Store Planning.” Frederick Kiesler’s 1928 department store was an opaque box on massive piers, but Kiesler also proposed a glass-enclosed continuous sales ramp. Perhaps most radical, Louis Parnes invented a system of alternating storage and display floors. Parnes, “Intermediate Floors for Greater Efficiency in Storage and Service,” 95–97 and cover image. See also “Department Store, Houston, Texas.” 15. Hamlin, ”Some Restaurants and Recent Shops,” 495. 16. There is a wide literature on evaluations of consumption, much of it American. For example, see Horowitz, The Morality of Spending; Jackson Lears, “From Salvation to SelfRealization ”; Agnew, “Coming Up for Air”; Fiske, Reading the Popular; Baudrillard, “Consumer Society.” Cultural theory in recent years has looked at shopping and consumption as an enactment of legitimate desires and a means of forming a coherent and even shifting identity within an environment largely shaped by capital. While most understand this “agency” as still highly circumscribed, many observers no longer view consumption as the subterfuge that is the legacy of the harshest critiques—from the Frankfurt School, Stuart Hall, Daniel Bell, or Dwight Macdonald—and now take a more ambivalent view. 17. Leach, Land of Desire; Miller, The Bon Marché; Laermans, “Learning to Consume.” On “theaters of goods,” see Ewen and Ewen, Channels of Desire, 45. 18. Barth, City People; Boyer, Manhattan Manners, 86–129; Bowlby, Carried Away, 30–78. 19. See the discussion in chapter 4. 20. Flâneurie and its pleasures and tensions are described in Baudelaire’s The Painter of Modern Life (1863) and in, among others, Walter Benjamin’s “Paris, Capital of the Nineteenth Century” (1935). See de Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life, 91...


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