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Bibliography Archives Anniston Public Library, Anniston, Alabama Atlanta University Research Center Archives, Atlanta, Georgia Birmingham Public Library, Birmingham, Alabama Boston Public Library, Boston, Massachusetts Bullock County Clerk’s Office, Union Springs, Alabama University of Kentucky Archives Censuses Bullock County, Alabama, U.S. Census, 1870, 1880 Cherokee County, Kansas, U.S. Census, 1910 Jefferson County, Alabama, U.S. Census, 1900 Kansas State Census, 1905 Wayne County, Michigan, U.S. Census 1920 Newspapers Anniston Star California Star-Ledger Chicago Defender New York Amsterdam News New York Herald Tribune New York Times City Directories Birmingham City Directory, 1915, 1916, 1917 Detroit City Directory, 1917, 1918, 1919 Personal Interviews Greg Kowalski. Email correspondence. November 29 and 30, 2010. Iona Pruett Macmillian. Midway, Alabama, May 17, 2011. Ruth Spencer. Cambridge, Massachusetts, January 15, 2010. Elizabeth Wilkins. 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Ditmore, Melissa Hope. “Blues.” In Encyclopedia of Prostitution and Sex Work. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2006. Etter-Lewis, Gwendolyn. My Soul Is My Own: Oral Narratives of African American Women in the Professions. New York: Routledge, 1991. Fassett, Agatha. Béla Bartók: The American Years. New York: Dover Publications, 1970. 145 Bibliography Feldman, Lynne B. A Sense of Place: Birmingham’s Black Middle-Class Community , 1890–1930. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1999. Fletcher,Winona L., and Sheila Mason Burton. Community Memories: A Glimpse of African American Life in Frankfort, Kentucky. Kentucky Historical Society, 2003. Frazier, E. Franklin. Black Bourgeoisie: The Rise of a New Middle Class. New York: Free Press, 1967. Fredrickson, George M. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817–1914. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1987. Gates, Grace Hooten. The Model City of the New South: Anniston, Alabama, 1872–1900. 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