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accent, vii, x, xiv, 3–6, 9, 60, 65, 87, 94, 98, 151 acculturation, 21, 37 Adams, Michael Paul, xxi, 4, 100 African American English, African American Vernacular English (AAE, AAVE), xx, 98–102, 105, 107 Aikawa, Noriko, 18–19 Alim, H. Samy, 100 Allen, Harold, 65–67 American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL), 136 Americanization, 37, 48 Andreozzi, John, 29 Anneke, Mathilde Franziska, 31–32 anymore (‘positive anymore’), 6 Apps, Jerry, 77–78 Ash, Sharon, 65–67, 147 attitudes, 83–89 132, 141 Bad River (Ojibwe), 15, 18 bag-raising (pre-velar raising), 8 bakery, 68 Baugh, John, 98–100, 105, 107–8 Beloit, 103 Bennett Law, 48–49 Benson, Erica, xxi, 87–88, 96 Berryman, Lou and Peter, 12 Bialystok, Ellen, 140 Biber, Douglas, 96 bilingual education, 125, 133–35; bilingual school, 44; dual language immersion/two-way bilingual education, 133; foreign language education, 53, 126, 127, 133, 135– 37, 140; maintenance bilingual education, 133, 135; transitional bilingual education, 134–35 bilingualism, xx, 116, 123, 126–28, 130, 132–35, 138–39; additive bilingualism, 132–33, 139, 140; advantages of bilingualism, 138, 140; subtractive bilingualism, 134 Bjork, Kenneth O., 55, 57 Bloomfield, Leonard, xix boarding schools, 20–22, 25 Boberg, Charles, 65–67, 147 Bourhis, Richard Y., 142 Brenzinger, Matthias, 18–19 Index 167 brogue, 3–5 Brueggemann, G. R., 47 bubbler, 74–75, 81, 143 Burt, Susan Meredith, 117–19, 146 Caldwell, Alan, 23 California, 69, 86, 100, 111 Camborne, Cornwall (England), 59 Cameron, Richard, 140 Canadian raising, 8, 102 Cassidy, Frederic, xvii, xix, 5, 147–48 cheese, 5–6, 29, 70, 73, 76, 80 Chicago, Illinois, 9, 65, 81, 102, 108, 114; Chicagoans, 76 Chinese, 112 Chomsky, Noam, 93, 99 citizenship, 48–49, 50, 124, 134, 139 Civil War, 38, 49, 102 Clyne, Michael, 112 come with, 12, 77, 79 Conrad, Susan, 96 consonants, 7, 122 Conzen, Michael P., 6 Copeland, Louis Albert, 60, 66 Cornish English, xx, 5, 6, 58–63, 65, 66 correctness, 4–5, 83–86, 89, 91, 93 Craik, Fergus I. M., 140 Cumberland, 29 Cummins, James, 134, 140 Cundall, I. N., 47–48 Czech, xi, 27, 29, 30, 74 Danish, ix, 12, 30, 73, 77 Department of Public Instruction, 119 dialect, vii–ix, x, xviii–xx, 3, 5, 9, 11, 26, 49, 57, 58–67, 75, 86, 88–89, 94, 107, 109, 110, 130, 132, 141, 147 Dictionary of American Regional English (DARE), xix, 5, 68, 69, 70– 72, 78, 80, 147–49 diglossia, 131 Dillard, Joey Lee, 100 discrimination, 97, 99, 107–9, 130 Dodge County, 43, 47 double negatives, 5, 13, 61–62, 89, 91, 96 Duffy, John M., 122 Dutch, xi, 8, 12, 26, 30–31, 35, 73, 77, 112 Dwyer, Arienne, 18–19 ebonics, xx, 98–101 education, 29, 35, 37, 39–40, 42–55, 56, 92–96, 97, 99–100, 109–10, 119–21, 124–26, 127–28, 132, 133–39, 146, 152; curriculum, 24, 44–45, 50, 55, 133, 137–38; language of instruction, 37, 42–49, 56, 133; textbooks, 42, 50–53, 136–37 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) v. Target, 107–8 emigration, 27, 35, 38, 40, 56. See also immigration employment, 29, 32, 43, 93, 97, 99, 102, 105, 107, 132 English, vii, ix, xi, xiv, xviii–xx, 3–5, 7, 9–14, 18, 20, 21, 26–27, 29, 32–34, 36, 37, 42–43, 45, 47–50, 55–57, 58–66, 68–74, 77, 82–96, 97–101, 105, 107, 109, 112–13, 116–21, 127–34, 138, 140–41, 143–44, 150–52; Middle English, 8, 13; Old English, 8, 13 English only, 37, 134, 152 ethnic festivals, 34, 73–74 ethnicity, 69, 97, 105, 146 168 Index Fapso, Richard J., 32 Farley, Reynolds, 105 Finnish, ix, xi, 35, 74 Fishman, Joshua A., 125, 140 folk humor, 66 folk linguistics. See perception Fought, Carmen, 86–87, 96 founder effect, 66 Fraktur, 49–50 French, xvii, 20, 30, 35 Frey, Benjamin, 32 German, ix–x, xi, xiii, xviii–xix, 6, 8, 11–12, 26–27, 29–31, 34, 35, 37– 57, 69–73, 77–81, 98, 112, 120– 21, 143, 150 German-English Academy, Milwaukee, 44–45, 53 Germantown, 29 Gleason, Jean B., 118 Goc, Michael, 56 Goldberg, Bettina, 44 Gothic type, 49–50 grammar: language system, xx, 3, 4– 5, 77, 88, 128, 136; reference, xix, 30, 90; as school subject, 54–55 great migration, 99, 102, 103 Green, Lisa, 98, 100–101 Green Bay, 74, 130–31...


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