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281 notes Abbreviations LLMVC Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collection, Special Collections, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LSU Louisiana State University NCA Natchitoches Colonial Archives, Natchitoches Parish Courthouse NCCO Natchitoches Clerk of Court’s Office, Natchitoches Parish Courthouse NSU Northwestern State University, Natchitoches PPC-AGI Papeles Procedentes de Cuba, Archivo General de Indias, Seville SCC Southern Claims Commission Foreword to the Revised Edition 1. Mills earned his doctoral degree in 1974 at Mississippi State University. The Forgotten People was the published version of his dissertation. See Dissertation Abstracts International 35 (1975): 5265–66, for Gary B. Mills. 2. The historiographical situation for Louisiana was hardly unique. Many English-speaking scholars of the United States found the regions of the Spanish borderlands—which fell within the modern-day boundaries of the states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida—daunting. 3. Frederick Stielow, review in Journal of American History 65 (Sept. 1978): 453–54; David Steven Cohen, review in American Historical Review 83 (Oct. 1978): 1091; Lester C. Lamon, review in Journal of Southern History 44 (May 1978): 287–79; Joe Gray Taylor, review in Alabama Review 31 (Apr. 1978): 151–53. 4. Herbert Eugene Bolton, ed., Athanase de Mézières and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier, 1768– 1780, 2 vols. (Cleveland: Arthur Clark Co., 1914). Ross Phares’s Cavalier in the Wilderness: The Story of the Explorer and Trader Louis Juchereau de St. Denis (Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 1952) was another work furthering the impression that the town was devoted to Indian trade. It focused on Louis Juchereau de St. Denis, the founder and first commandant of Natchitoches. 5. In fact, Natchitoches was a cosmopolitan blend of several frontier social groups and economic activities. While the Indian trade was important, the town became a plantation region by the end of the French era. The truth about interracial alliances between Indians and French 282 notes to pages xiv–xv settlers was that only a small group, mostly consisting of the town’s elite, formed these ties with Indian tribes and Spanish families during the French era. See H. Sophie Burton and F. Todd Smith, Colonial Natchitoches: A Creole Community on the Louisiana-Texas Frontier (College Station : Texas A&M University Press, 2008). 6. Herbert E. Sterkx, The Free Negro in Ante-Bellum Louisiana (Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1972); Donald E. Everett, “Emigrés and Militiamen: Free Persons of Color in New Orleans, 1803–1815,” Journal of Negro History 38 (Oct. 1953): 377–80; Robert Reinders, “The Decline of the New Orleans Free Negro in the Decade before the Civil War,” Journal of Mississippi History 24 (Jan. 1962): 88–98; Robert Reinders, “The Free Negro in the New Orleans Economy, 1850–1860,” Louisiana History 6 (Summer 1965): 273–85; Donald E. Everett, “Free Persons of Color in Colonial Louisiana,” Louisiana History 7 (Winter 1966): 21–50; Laura Foner, “The Free People of Color in Louisiana and St. Domingue: A Comparative Portrait of Two Three-Caste Slave Societies,” Journal of Social History 3 (Summer 1970): 406–30; John Blassingame , Black New Orleans, 1860–1880 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973). 7. Mills was interested in the ideas put forth by Frank Tannenbaum in Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the Americas (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1946). This work posited that free blacks and slaves benefited from the more fluid race relations in French and Spanish colonial Louisiana and suffered under the rigidity of American society. Mills’s work bolstered the Tannenbaum thesis as he found that the Cane River Creoles benefited from the Spanish regime and struggled under American rule. 8. Kimberly S. Hanger, Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleans , 1769–1803 (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1997); Virginia Meacham Gould, “In Full Enjoyment of Their Liberty: The Free Women of Color of the Gulf Ports of New Orleans, Mobile, and Pensacola, 1769–1860” (Ph.D. dissertation, Emory University, 1991); L. Virginia Gould, “Urban Slavery–Urban Freedom: The Manumission of Jacqueline Lemell,” in More than Chattel: Black Women and Slavery in the Americas, ed. David Barry Gaspart and Darlene Clark Hine (Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1996); Carl A. Brasseaux, Keith P. Fontenot, and Claude F. Oubre, Creoles of Color in the Bayou Country (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1994); James H. Dormon, ed., Creoles of Color of the Gulf South (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1996); Mary Gehman, Free People of Color of New Orleans: An Introduction (New Orleans: Margaret Media, 1994...


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