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271 Index acculturation, 4–6, 9, 183, 200, 202, 207–8 activists, communist, 161, 166–67, 169, 175–76 Aleni, Giulio, 17, 215n6, altar decorations, 24, 32, 34, 36, 37, 72, 184, 194 America, 65, 85, 157, 195; missionaries, 99, 188, 204–5 ancestral rituals, 5, 47, 49–51, 53, 93, 201, 207; papal ban on, 36–38, 52, 61, 67, 70, 72, 80, 102 apocalypse, fears of, 26, 142, 145, 147–48, 158, 161, 195 apostasy, 53, 203, 145, 165; refusal, 39, 44, 111; responses to, 8, 119, 156, 175 Arcari, Ugolino, 121 Assumption, feast of, 195–97 atomic bomb, 158 atonement, 50, 169–70, 202 authenticity of Chinese Christianity, 5, 10, 200, 207–8 Balboni, Mario, 130, 148, 237n35, 147n7 banking: missionaries, 131; Shanxi, 71, 119. See also usury Bansishan. See Shrine of the Holy Mother baptism, 20, 23, 29, 30, 31, 48, 63, 68, 101, 124. See also conversion Beijing, 37–38, 46, 51, 147, 191; as seat of government, 44, 95, 109, 113, 118, 157, 164; churches, 32, 34, 71, 86; conversions in, 13–15, 19, 23, 43, 95 Belgian missionaries, 119, 126, 147 bells, 23, 112 Bible, 45, 70–71, 95, 117, 182, 192; and Protestants, 201, 204–5 birth control, 1, 189–90 bishops: Chinese, 3, 139, 148, 168, 178, 183, 206; in Europe, 76–77, 79; missionary, 72, 80, 82, 85, 87, 89, 102, 124 blackmail, 51, 67, 71–72, 108–9 Book of Changes (Yijing), 52, 61 Boxer Indemnity: impact, 7, 117, 121, 126, 129, 131, 143, 204; negotiations, 118–19; use of, 120, 123, 132 Boxer Uprising, 6, 7, 12, 93, 96, 126, 143, 199; events of, 108–15; impact of, 92–94, 117, 119–20, 127, 147, 151, 154, 177, 183, 200 Britain, 6, 45, 64, 67, 77, 82, 204–5 Buddhism: chanting, 27–28, 196; monks, 48, 50–51, 82, 93, 118, 123, 191; fasting, 26, 29–31; prayers, 27–29, 35; similarities with Christianity, 15, 18, 24, 26–35, 40, 50–51, 61–62, 201 Cannetti, Domenico d’Assisi, 79–83, 85, 99 Capozi, Luca, 147–48, 240n3 catechism, 130, 135–36, 188 catechists, employment of, 48, 68, 121, 128–31, 151 9780520273115_PRINT.indd 271 9780520273115_PRINT.indd 271 27/04/13 3:46 PM 27/04/13 3:46 PM 272 | Index Catholic community leaders (huizhang), 37–38, 48, 66, 146 Catholic elites, 9, 18, 30–31, 37–38, 44, 61, 72–73, 82, 84; education, 53, 95–96, 132, 136; missionary dependence on, 47–48, 51–53, 67, 74. See also merchants Catholic villages in hills and plains, 9, 20–22, 43, 71, 73, 110, 120–21, 123, 150–51, 189, 192, 206 Catholics, numbers of, 96–97, 131, 179 Cave Gully (Dongergou): cemetery, 2, 175, 188; curse of, 2, 116–17, 129, 138; poverty, 19, 36, 39, 44–45, 67, 116, 120, 150; road construction, 168, 188–189; water supply, 7, 101, 118–19, 132, 136–38, 170, 188. See also orphanages , seminaries, shrines Changgou. See Long Gully charitable giving, 17, 63, 130–31, 191 Chen Guodi, 3, 100, 110, 127, 130–32, 134, 136, 139 Chen, Stanislaus, 103, 232n33 Chiapetta, Michele, 111, 133–34, 234n49, 238n51 Chinese College, Naples, 46, 66, 75–76 Chinese folk religion, 4–5, 7–8, 40, 175, 195, 201, 206; conflict with Christianity , 36, 177; merges with Catholicism, 34, 49 Chinese Rites Controversy, 5, 36–38, 47, 51–52, 60, 64, 70, 183 christianitas, 103 Christianity: absorbed into popular culture, 34, 39; compatibility with Chinese culture, 3–4, 17, 23–34, 48–51, 61–62, 93–94, 104–7, 200–2; as a foreign religion, 3–8, 10, 25, 62, 94–99, 108–9, 115, 127, 146, 165, 180, 187, 207; growth since 1980s, 8, 178–82, 197–98; hostility to, 7, 92–96, 108–15, 117, 146–54, 161–69 Christmas, 2, 10, 79, 107, 169, 189 church buildings, 57, 111–12, 116, 137; closure, 154, 156, 162, 169; construction , 86, 89–90, 95, 99, 138–39, 141; destruction, 109, 112, 142, 168–69; reconstruction since 1979, 174–177, 181–82, 185–87, 192 church buildings, style of: Chinese, 5, 71, 185–87; Western, 99, 105, 115 Cipparone, Antonio, 129 clothes, of clergy, 76, 114, 120–21, 127, 132, 142–43 Cold Springs Road (Liuhe), 21–22, 62, 78, 102, 109, 111–12, 150, 172, 175–78; in 1965 events, 156–63, 166–67 College of the Holy Family. See Chinese College, Naples Collegium Urbanum, Rome, 77, 87 Communist...