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211 abbreviations ACGOFM Archivio della Curia Generalizia dell’Ordine dei Frati Minori (Rome) AOPF Archives de l’Oeuvre de la Propagation de la Foi, Oeuvres Pontificales Missionnaires Centre de Lyon APF Archivio Storico della Congregazione per l’Evangelizzazione dei Popoli o “de Propaganda Fide” (Rome) SC Cina Scritture riferite nei congressi, Cina e regni adiacenti, 1800–83 SC Indie Scritture riferite nei congressi, Indie orientali e Cina, 1744–99 SOCP Scritture Originali della Congregazione Particolare Indie Orientali e Cina, 1721–1856 OFM Missione di Yütze (Shan-si, Cina), Provincia di Cristo Re Archivio Bologna Provinciale, Frati Minori dell’Emilia Romagna (Bologna) POSI Pontificium Opus a Sancta Infantia (Rome) SBD Shanxi beijiaoqu dang’an 山西北教區檔案 [Archives of the diocese of Northern Shanxi] (Taiyuan) SD Shanxi daxue Zhongguo shehuishi yanjiu zhongxin 山西大學中 國社會史研究中心 [Shanxi University Chinese Social History Research Institute], X dadui danweihui tianzhujiao zonghe ziliao he geren dang’an 大隊單位會天主教宗合資料和個人檔案 [X brigade unit committee Catholic general materials and personnel files] (Taiyuan) Notes 9780520273115_PRINT.indd 211 9780520273115_PRINT.indd 211 27/04/13 3:46 PM 27/04/13 3:46 PM 212 | Notes to Pages 2–4 introduction 1. Joannes Kuo, 1781, APF SOCP 63:754; Leo Cen et al., 22 Oct. 1861, APF SC Cina 19:548; Camillus Ciao, 1 Aug. 1804, APF SOCP 70:313; Josephus Van, 2 June 1873, APF SC Cina 26:89–96; Josephus Van, 9 June 1873, APF SC Cina 25:309–12; Josephus Van, 1 Sept. 1873, APF SC Cina 26:98–104; Josephus Van, 5 Nov. 1873, APF SC Cina 26:106–10. 2. There have been fashions in history writing for both studies of major themes over lengthy periods and for microhistories of incidents and individuals, but these are seldom combined. Some recent exceptions are William T. Rowe, Crimson Rain: Seven Centuries of Violence in a Chinese County (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007), Joseph W. Esherick, Ancestral Leaves: A Family Journey through Chinese History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010). 3. Michael Werner and Bénédicte Zimmerman, “Beyond Comparison: Histoire Croisée and the Challenge of Reflexivity,” History and Theory 45, no. 1 (2006), 30–50. 4. Léon Joly, Le Christianisme et l’Extrême Orient (Paris: P. Lethielleux, 1907) and Le problème des missions: Tribulations d’un vieux chanoine (Paris: P. Lethielleux, 1908); Jacques Leclercq, Thunder in the Distance: The Life of Père Lebbe (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1958), 132. 5. These questions were particularly pertinent for an earlier generation of scholars who looked at the history of Christianity in China in the context of the hostility of the People’s Republic of China to the West in the 1960s and 1970s. Paul A. Cohen, China and Christianity: The Missionary Movement and the Growth of Chinese Anti-Foreignism 1860–1870 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963), viii–ix; Jacques Gernet, China and the Christian Impact: A Conflict of Cultures, trans. Janet Lloyd (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985; 1st edition, 1982). 6. Robert Antony Orsi, The Madonna of 115th Street: Faith and Community in Italian Harlem, 1880–1950 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002). 7. In the study of Chinese religion this approach began with the work of Erik Zürcher, who wrote on acculturation in both Buddhism and Christianity: Erik Zürcher, The Buddhist Conquest of China: The Spread and Adaptation of Buddhism in Early Medieval China (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1959); Erik Zürcher, “Un ‘contrat communal’ chrétien de la fin des Ming: Le Livre d’Admonition de Han Lin (1641)” in L’Europe en Chine: Interactions scientifiques, religieuses et culturelles du XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, eds. Catherine Jami and Hubert Delahaye (Paris: Collège de France, Institut des hautes études chinoises, 1993), 3–22. Recent scholarship has expanded from Zürcher’s focus on texts to include studies of Christian practices and local society: Nicolas Standaert, The Interweaving of Rituals: Funerals in the Cultural Exchange between China and Europe (Seattle : University of Washington Press, 2008); Eugenio Menegon, Ancestors, Virgins , and Friars: Christianity as a Local Religion in Late Imperial China (Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center Press, 2009); Zhang Xianqing, Guanfu, zongzu yu tianzhujiao—17–19 shiji Fuan xiangcun jiaohui de lishi shushi [State, lineage and Catholicism: A narrative of the history of the church in 17th to 19th century rural Fuan] (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 2009). There have also been works that see acculturation as taking place in the nineteenth 9780520273115_PRINT.indd 212 9780520273115_PRINT.indd 212 27/04/13 3:46 PM 27/04/13 3:46 PM Notes to...