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Page numbers in italics represent figures, maps, and tables. Acarí, 135 Achaya, 261 Acora region, 215; chulpas of, 76, 95, 234, 271; Inca ayllu in, 261; on Inca road system, 263; Inca urban center of, 243, 244; inhabited pukara in, 210–11; pampas of, 38; without pre-Inca occupation, 240 administered trade systems, 20 adobe chulpas, 231, 232 agricultural seasons, 62 agriculture: and agro-ecological typology, 36, 38–40, 38; in Altiplano period, 226–27; in Early Formative period, 99–100, 109; Inca-period systems of, 258–59; in Middle Formative period, 134; mitima’s role in, 260; and Onofre’s soil types, 36, 37; suni and puna regions of, 34–35; and Tschopik’s land categories, 35–36; in Upper Formative period, 6–7. See also rainfed agriculture; raised fields; terrace systems Akapana pyramid (Tiwanaku), 7, 11, 117, 149; description of, 172; miniature of, at Sillumocco-Huaquina, 182 Albarracin-Jordan, Juan, 12, 291; and Allkamari sunken court, 279; and Chiripa-related Tiwanaku Valley sites, 138; and Early Pacajes pottery, 228; and Formativeperiod Tiwanaku Valley economy, 138; and Formative -period Tiwanaku Valley settlement patterns, 146–47; on Guaqui, 247; and Pacajes-Inka type, 269; and Pacajes settlement data, 216, 254; and Tiwanakuperiod Tiwanaku Valley settlement patterns, 176, 176; Tiwanaku state model by, 285, 286–87, 289; and Tiwanaku Valley survey, 85, 125–26 3 3 1 Albó, Xavier, 223 Alcobasa, Diego de, 46 Alconini Mujica, Sonia, 126, 138, 146, 168, 169 Aldenderfer, Mark, 39, 95, 99, 100, 102, 108, 109 Ale, 188, 216 Allita Amaya pottery, 227 Allkamari, 279 Altarani, 274–75, 305n12 Altiplano period (a.d. 1100–1450): autochthonous model of settlement in, 221; chronology of, 206–8; chulpas of, 84, 95, 96, 230–31; economic strategies of, 226–27; migration model of settlement in, 52–53, 221–23; puna pastoralism of, 258; Sillustani habitation site in, 234; site size distributions in, 216, 253– 54; tomb types of, 229–31; use of term, 207; warfare during, 206, 209, 219–20. See also Aymara Altiplano-period pottery, 227; and Aymara migration hypothesis, 228–29; in Colla region, 227–28; in Lupaqa region, 228; in southern Titicaca Basin, 228; in Tiwanaku enclaves, 198; west of Hatuncolla, 242 Altiplano-period pukaras: inhabited vs. uninhabited, 210–11; major, 209, 210, 211–13; minor, 209–10, 214– 15; west of Hatuncolla, 242 Altiplano-period settlement patterns, 16, 206, 208–9; vs. Inca-period settlement patterns, 252; on Island of the Sun, 217–19, 218; in Juli-Pomata area, 216–17, 217, 226; in Pacajes area, 217 Alto Ramírez, 163, 224 Amaizana China, 151–52, 180 Index Amantaní Island, 188, 248 Amat Olazabal, Hernán, 87–88, 228 amaya uta (house of souls), 95, 229, 230 Ambaná, 261 American Museum of Natural History, 182 Ancient Civilizations of the Andes (Means), 78 Ancoaqui village, 58 Ancoraimes, 247, 261 Andean cross motif, 172, 173 “Andean culture area” myth, 30–32 Andean political economies: competitive feasting in, 69; mechanisms of exchange in, 67–69, 302n17; tribute relationships in, 69–70 Anderson, David G., 283 Anderson, Karen, 191 andesite: at Amaizana China, 180; of Inca origin, near Koa, 276; at Kanamarca, 180 Andesuyu, 30 Angrand, Leonce, 77 Antofagasta chulpas, 233 apachetas (ceremonial sites), 96 Apachinaca, 200–1, 258 Apurímac chulpas, 233 Arapa, 82, 144, 145, 155, 242 Arapa stela, 174 Arce Helguero, Freddy, 61 archaeological research: by Bennett, 79–80; chronologies used in (see chronologies); by Cieza, 74–75; in early modern era, 78–79; major Titicaca Basin sites of, 79–80, 82–84; by Means, 78; by nineteenthcentury naturalists, 75–77; political/ideological context of, 72–74; by Ponce, 80; by Posnansky, 77–78; reconnaissance approach in, 84–85 architecture: at Chen Chen–phase Moquegua, 190; at Chiripa site, 117; at Early Formative–period San Bartolomé–Wiscachani, 104; at Inca–period Carpa, 247, 248; at Inca-period Chucuito, 243–44; on Lake Titicaca islands, 248, 249; of Late Middle Formative period, 133–34; at Lundayani, 245; at Middle Formative–period primary regional centers, 112, 114, 115, 118, 119, 120; of Middle Formative–period villages, 120–22; at Pachatata Amantaní, 188; at preInca Lupaqa, 14; at primary regional centers, 92; at primary urban centers, 91; at secondary regional I N D E X 3 3 2 centers, 92; at tertiary urban centers, 91–92; at Titinhuayani, 118; at Tiwanaku-period Azapa vs. Moquegua, 192; at Tiwanaku-period Puno sites, 187; Tiwanaku-period style of, 198–99, 201, 290; of Tiwanaku’s core, 7, 10–11, 172–75...


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