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Notes abbreviations used in the notes Adm. Great Britain, Admiralty. Archives. Public Record Office, London. BYGDLZ Gan Houci, ed., Beiyang gongdu leizuan (Classified collection of public documents of the commissioner of trade for the northern ports) CXTJFZ Shen Jibian et al., eds., Chongxiu Tianjin fuzhi (Revised gazetteer of Tianjin prefecture) DECYPZZ Qi Shihe, ed., Di’er ci yapian zhanzhen (The second opium war) DTYMHYJY Dutong yamen huiyi jiyao (Minutes of the meetings of the Tianjin Provisional Government) DYYY Tianjin shili diyi yiyuan (Tianjin Number One Municipal Hospital), record group 123, Tianjin Municipal Archives, Tianjin FO Great Britain, Foreign Office. Archives. Public Record Office, London GX Guangxu reign period JA Ji’an zilaishui youxian gongsi (Tientsin Native City Waterworks Company, Ltd.), Tianjin Municipal Archives NCH North China Herald (1850–67); North China Herald and Supreme Court and Consular Gazette (1870–1941) PRO Public Record Office, London TJWSZL Tianjin wenshi ziliao (Tianjin historical materials) 319 TJXXZ Gao Lingwen, ed., Tianjin xin xianzhi (A new gazetteer of Tianjin county) TJZSYGJ Wang Shouxun, Tianjin zhengsu yan’ge ji (Record of changes of the government and customs of Tianjin), 1938 TMA Tianjin Municipal Archives WSC Tianjinshi weisheng chu (Tianjin Municipal Health Department) ZAWSJ Tianjinshi zhi’an weichi weiyuanhui weisheng ju (Health Department of the Tianjin Security Preservation Committee) prologue 1. “Sun zhenren weisheng ge” (Sun the Perfected One’s song of guarding life), in Hu Wenhuan, comp., Lei xiu yao jue (Essential formulas for selfcultivation , divided in categories), in Hu Wenhuan, Lei xiu yao jue (c. 1600; Shanghai: Shanghai zhongyi xueyuan chuban she, 1989); reprinted in Zhou Shouzhong (fl. 1208), comp., Yang sheng lei zuan (Compilation of nurturing life), and Hu Wenhuan, comp., Lei xiu yao jue. introduction 1. Lydia Liu,Translingual Practice:Literature,National Culture,andTranslated Modernity—China, 1900–1937 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995), 28. 2. John Fitzgerald,Awakening China:Politics,Culture,and Class in the Nationalist Revolution (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996). 3. Several scholars, most notably Frank Dikötter, have already begun to explore the relationships among health, disease, and modernity in China. In his pathbreaking intellectual histories, Dikötter has uncovered premodern Chinese antecedents of hierarchical concepts of race and sex difference. At the same time, he has demonstrated the radical shifts that occurred when these concepts became part of a discourse of science. See Dikötter, The Discourse of Race in Modern China (Stanford:Stanford University Press,1992);Sex,Culture,and Modernity in China: Medical Science and the Construction of Sexual Identities in the Early Republican Period (London: Hurst and Co., 1995); and Imperfect Conceptions : Medical Knowledge, Birth Defects, and Eugenics in China (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998). 4. For a genealogy of this term, see Jürgen Osterhammel, “Semicolonialism and Informal Empire in Twentieth-Century China: Towards a Framework of Analysis,” in Imperialism and After: Continuities and Discontinuities, ed. Wolfgang Mommsen and Osterhammel (London: Allen and Unwin, 1986). 320 / Notes to Pages xiv–3 5. Li Chih-ch’ang, The Travels of an Alchemist: The Journey of the Taoist Ch’ang Ch’un from China to the Hindukush at the Summons of Chingiz Khan, trans. Arthur Waley (London: George Routledge and Sons, Ltd., 1931), 101. Translation slightly altered.The original Chinese may be found in Li Zhichang, Chang Chun zhen ren xi you ji (The journey to the west of the Perfected One Chang Chun), 1228, in Kuo hsueh chi pen cong shu, vol. 349, ed. Wang Yunwu (Taibei: Shangwu jin shu guan, 1968), shang juan 16. 6. Li Chih-ch’ang, Travels of an Alchemist, 24. 7. Andrew Wear, “The History of Personal Hygiene,” in Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine, vol.2,ed.Roy Porter andW.F.Bynum (London : Routledge, 1993), 1283–1308. 8. For an excellent intellectual history of hygiene in Europe, see Heikii Mikkeli, Hygiene in the Early Modern Medical Tradition (Helsinki: Academica Scientiarum Fennica, 1999). Henry Sigerist, Landmarks in the History of Hygiene (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956), is a convenient summary of major texts. On shifts in regimens (primarily from hot to cold), see Virginia Smith,“Prescribing the Rules of Health:Self-Help and Advice in the Late Eighteenth Century,” in Patients and Practitioners: Lay Perceptions of Medicine in Pre-industrial Society, ed.Roy Porter (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1985). 9. For comprehensive narrative histories of public health in the West, see George Rosen,A History of Public Health (1958;reprint,Baltimore:Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993); and Dorothy Porter, Health, Civilization, and the State:A...