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notes In quoted material using the Wade-Giles system of romanization for Chinese names and terms, I have taken the liberty of substituting pinyin for the sake of readability. preface 1. Miller, Timebends, 348. 2. For an account of the process by which stories became elaborated in early China and continued to grow and change thereafter, see Owen, An Anthology of Chinese Literature, 88. Owen singles out as an example Wu Zixu, who happens to figure in important ways in the Goujian story. 3. In Joan of Arc’s case, again, there is no stable text, and so, Mary Gordon tells us, there are as many renderings of her story in fiction, film, drama, and television as there are storytellers. Joan of Arc, 148–65. 4. On Lin, see Wen, “Lun Lin Zexu liufang shi de yongdian yishu,” 89. On Zeng, see Xue, “Zeng Guofan wenhua ren’ge lun,” 55. On Chiang, see chapter 2. For references to the Goujian story in poems left by immigrants at Angel Island , see Him Mark Lai et al., Island, 56, 124–25, 139, 143, 158, 160. On the identi fication of Chinese immigrants in the Philippines with the Goujian story, see “Kan Huashi lishiju Yue wang Goujian.” 5. The source of the fable is the Daoist text Liezi. “Yu gong yi shan,” in Guomin xiaoxue guoyu, 4 (lesson 23): 65–66, and “Zengwenxi shuiku,” in ibid., 2 4 1 12 (lesson 6): 17–19; “Yu gong yi shan,” in Guomin zhongxue guowenke jiaokeshu, 3 (lesson 15): 67–70. 6. An early discussion of this contemporary application of the story is in Mao’s concluding speech at the Seventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China, delivered on June 11, 1945. See his “The Foolish Old Man Who Removed the Mountains,” 3:321–24. For later references, see “Carry Out the Cultural Revolution Thoroughly and Transform the Educational System Completely ,” in Peking Review, June 24, 1966, 15–17; Liang and Shapiro, Son of the Revolution, 78, 175. 7. “In the present day,” a commentator on historical drama observed in the early 1960s, “when the party has called on us to engage in arduous struggle [jianku fendou] and to work hard to strengthen the nation [fafen tuqiang], the story of King Goujian of Yue’s sleeping on brushwood and tasting gall has appeal for large numbers of viewers.” Wang Jisi, “Duo xiexie zheyang de lishi gushi xi,” 121–22. 8. Bruner, Making Stories, 7, 34–35, 60. 1. the goujian story in antiquity 1. The fullest modern account of the life of Goujian is Yang Shanqun, Yuewang Goujian xin zhuan (1988); twice reprinted in Taiwan, first as Woxin changdan (1991), and subsequently as Goujian (1993). I use the 1991 Taiwan edition here. 2. It is reasonable to assume that all of the ancient sources on Goujian have some degree of fictional content, either deliberate or inadvertent. David Schaberg argues, with respect to the Guoyu and Zuozhuan, that although they “most certainly include a good deal of accurate information about the Spring and Autumn period, . . . that information is mixed with interested fictions, and it will never be possible to determine precisely where the fiction ends.” A Patterned Past, 329 n. 36. For a similar argument, see Chu Binjie and Wang Hengzhan, “Lun xian Qin lishi sanwen zhong de xiaoshuo yinsu,” 42–48. 3. The texts I’ve used are as follows: For Shiji: Nienhauser, The Grand Scribe’s Records, vol. 7; Ssu-ma Ch’ien [Sima Qian], Records of the Grand Historian of China; Ssu-ma Ch’ien [Sima Qian], Records of the Historian; Szuma Chien [Sima Qian], Selections from Records of the Historian; and Takigawa, Shiki kaich[ kOshO. For Zuozhuan: The Ch’un Ts’ew with the Tso Chuen, in Legge, trans., The Chinese Classics, vol. 5. For Guoyu: Lai Kehong, Guoyu zhijie. For Lüshi chunqiu: Knoblock and Riegel, The Annals of Lü Buwei. 4. Zhao Ye’s original work, in twelve juan, no longer exists. There seems to be some degree of scholarly consensus that all editions now extant derive from a tenjuan edition compiled by the Shaoxing scholar Xu Tiangu (Hsü T’ien-ku) in 1306. See Johnson, “The Wu Tzu-hsü Pien-wen and Its Sources: Part I,” 152–56; Zhou Shengchun, Wu Yue chunqiu jijiao huikao, introduction (xulun), 9–10; Huang Rensheng, Xin yi Wu Yue chunqiu (hereafter cited as XYWYCQ), reader’s intron o t e s t o p a g e s x i x – 1...


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