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231 NOTES INTRODUCTION 1. Walker, Richard Wright, Daemonic Genius, 154. 2. Wright, “How ‘Bigger’ Was Born,” xxvii. 3. See Grant, Negro with a Hat; Lewis, W. E. B. Du Bois, 1868–1918; Lewis, W. E. B. Du Bois, 1919–1963; McKay and Maxwell, Complete Poems; Gilmore, Defying Dixie; and Holloway, Confronting the Veil. 4. Kersten, A. Philip Randolph; Pfeffer, A. Philip Randolph. 5. Historians have argued convincingly for a reframing of the civil rights movement era such that it does not begin in 1954 or 1955 and end in 1968. They point to earlier starting points prior to World War II, referring to this new periodization as the “long civil rights movement.” I lean on that construction here. For a sampling of the long civil rights history, see, among others, Hall, “Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past”; Gilmore, Defying Dixie; Singh, Black Is a Country; Brown-Nagin, Courage to Dissent; and Hamlin, Crossroads at Clarksdale. 6. Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass; Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl; Brown, Narrative of William W. Brown. 7. Blassingame, “Black Autobiographies as History and Literature,” 7. 8. The new memory politics I will be examining start to occur at a scale heretofore not experienced or expressed in African America. Here I join scholars like Ron Eyerman who recognize that as African Americans migrated from the rural landscapes toward the urban, they also participated in expanding ways with new spheres of technology and communication. See Eyerman, Cultural Trauma. 9. In an essay on change and continuity in black music, Nathaniel Mackey argues, “Underlying the great amount of attention given to changes in the black stance and situation is the deeper conviction that a continuum exists within which the threat of dilution, cooptation, or amalgamation by the dominant white culture has been and continues to be repelled. A black position, one of outsidedness or of alienation and resistance (which will in [Amiri Baraka’s] Black Music come to be called ‘the changing same’), becomes a kind of ‘unmoved mover’ at the root of black America’s transformations ” (Mackey, “Changing Same,” 360). Similarly, in Blues People, his classic critique of cultural practices and racial authenticity, Baraka (then LeRoi Jones) talks about the “consistent attitudes within changed contexts” (Jones, Blues People, 153). 10. Blight, Race and Reunion, 109. 11. Wright, “Ethics of Living Jim Crow,” 2. Also see Ritterhouse, Growing Up Jim Crow, 170–71. 12. Wright, “Ethics of Living Jim Crow,” 1–2. 232 / Notes to Pages 7–21 13. Holloway, Confronting the Veil, xi. 14. Ellison, “Richard Wright’s Blues,” 85. 15. Nora, “Between Memory and History,” 285–86. 16. Earley, “Introduction.” 17. Popkin, History, Historians, & Autobiography, 63. 18. The full quote is as follows: “Silences enter the process of historical production at four crucial moments: the moment of fact creation (the making of sources); the moment of fact assembly (the making of archives); the moment of fact retrieval (the making of narratives); and the moment of retrospective significance (the making of history in the final instance)” (Trouillot, Silencing the Past, 26). 19. Brundage, “No Deed but Memory,” 6. 20. Wallach, Closer to the Truth Than Any Fact, 145. 21. Warren, Who Speaks for the Negro?, ix. Getting to the truth of something means relying on “facts.” What a fact happens to be, however, is a matter of philosophical debate . See Howlett and Morgan, How Well Do Facts Travel? 22. For more on this controversy, see Arsenault, Sound of Freedom. CHAPTER 1 1. The long and tangled history of blacks’ battles for respectability is well told from a range of perspectives. Some leading examples include Higginbotham, Righteous Discontent ; Gaines, Uplifting the Race; and Hunter, To ’Joy My Freedom. 2. Wright, “How ‘Bigger’ Was Born,” xxiii. 3. See, for example, the following books: Harris and Spero, Black Worker; Harris, Negro as Capitalist; Davis, Gardner, and Gardner, Deep South; Davis and Dollard, Children of Bondage; Johnson, Shadow of the Plantation; Johnson, Embree, and Alexander , Collapse of Cotton Tenancy; Johnson, Patterns of Negro Segregation; Frazier, Negro Family in Chicago; Frazier, Negro Family in the United States; and Frazier, Negro Youth at the Crossways. Bunche and Dorsey wrote in short form. For further discussion of this era’s social science scholarship, see Holloway, Confronting the Veil, and Holloway and Keppel, Black Scholars on the Line. 4. Most famously, the modern field of cultural relativism was fostered at Columbia University under the leadership of anthropologist Franz Boas. Meanwhile, at the...


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