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333 INDEX Abrahamson, Warren G., 188, 196, 237 Abrams, D. A., 49, 50 Acacia spp., 163, 191t, 192, 193, 194, 198 A. pendula, 192 acridid grasshoppers, 181 Acyrthosiphon pisum, 138, 140, 142, 189 adaptation, local, 204, 207, 216, 217, 312 adaptive radiation, 117, 119, 174–84, 253, 300 and biodiversity, 112 capture and escape, 176–77 of common sawflies, 177 and convergence of constraints, 177–80 and divergence of constraints, 179–80 explosive scenario, 211, 212 host-associated, 131 and phylogenetic constraints, 153, 174, 175–79 and temperate and tropical similarities, 180–84 See also speciation adaptive syndrome, 175, 176, 184 adaptive zone hypothesis, 102, 253–54, 255 Ademnosperma, 230, 232f Adenostoma fasciculatum, 123 Adler, Lynn S., 36, 162–68 Advani, N. K., 314 Agathis, 216 Aglais, 213 Agonopterix alstroemeriana, 59 Agrawal, Anurag A., 43–54, 252 See also phenotypic plasticity agromyzid flies, 31, 253 alkaloids, 59, 61, 166, 330 pyrrholizidine, 34–35, 37, 38, 243 allelochemicals, 4, 6, 282 detoxification of, 12, 14 See also chemical mediation Alliaria petiolata, 284t Aphis A. chloris, 286, 288, 289 A. fabae, 140 See also aphids Aphrophora pectoralis, 23–24, 26 Apiaceae, 13, 252 Apocrypta, 225, 226–36, 237 Apocryptophagus, 250t Arabidopsis thaliana, 59, 60, 281 Arctiidae, 243 Argyrocupha malagrida, 329 Aricia agestis, 320 Arion subfuscus, 64 Aristolochia A. reticulata, 7 A. serpentaria, 7 arms race hypothesis, 252 Arytainilla A. cytisi, 155 A. telonicola, 155 Ascension Island, 207 Asche, M., 153 Ascia monuste, 6t Asclepias spp., 250t, 252, 330 A. syriaca, 49, 50, 58 Asimina spp., 7 A. triloba, 9 Asquith, A., 153 assortative mating, 89, 90–93, 136 and host-race formation, 190, 192, 194, 195 See also sexual communication Asteraceae, 36, 165, 194, 243, 248 Hawaiian silversword, 153, 158 Astrapes fulgerator, 221 Atrophaneura alcinous, 8, 9f, 10, 15 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), resistance to, 267–75 Bt cotton, 268, 269, 271–74, 275 allochrony, 75, 77, 184, 193–94 in Enchenopa treehoppers, 89, 96, 97, 103 allomones, 5, 10–11, 12 See also furanocoumarin allopatric speciation, 71, 97, 137, 183, 208 geographic, 154 host-plant range in, 210 and host-switching in island populations , 154, 157, 158, 244 and sympatry, 141, 142, 143–44, 209–10, 245 allozymes, 80–81, 142, 143 Alsophila pometaria, 139, 140, 183 Alternaria sp., 286 Amblypalpis olivierella, 182t Ambrosia A. artemisiifolia, 284t A. confertiflora, 36 Anadiplosis nr. venusta, 182t Anaphes nitens, 230 Anethum graveolens, 165 Angelica atropurpurea, 8 angiosperms (flowering plants), 203–4, 210, 212, 252, 254 ant-aphid mutualism, 50, 53–54 Anthonomus A. grandis, 250t A. signatus, 165 anthropogenic effects on coevolution, 325, 326–27, 329, 330 diet evolution, 311, 314, 319–22 See also climate change Aphanarthrum, 154 A. glabrum ssp. nudum, 155 A. subglabrum, 155 Aphidomorpha, 252 aphids, 157–58, 243 Acyrthosiphon pisum, 138, 140, 142, 189 ant-aphid mutualism, 50, 53–54 Chaitophorus, 62, 63, 63f, 64t Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), resistance to (continued) conclusions and future of, 274–75 genetic basics of, 268–69 mode of action, 268 and refuge strategy, 269–71, 273–74 transgenic crops with, 267–68 backcross hybrids, 63, 108, 112, 113 Baldwin, I. T., 46, 52, 158 Barbarea vulgaris, 219, 284t Barton, N. H., 137 Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model, 111 Battus philenor, 6t, 7, 8, 9f Bauhinia brevipes, 182t Bauplan (ground plan), 174, 175, 176 Becerra, J. X., 329 Berenbaum, May R., 3, 101, 283 Berlocher, Stewart H., 183, 208, 209, 245 sympatric model of, 140, 141–42, 143 Bernays, E. A., 21, 30–31, 36, 38, 46, 101 biocontrol insects, resistance to, 280, 282–83, 289, 319, 328 Chrysolina quarigemina, 283, 285–88 See also exotic plants, and enemy resistance biodiversity, 101, 102, 189, 253, 326 and adaptive radiation, 112 and oscillation hypothesis, 203, 204 biological controls, 58. See also Bacillus thuringiensis; biocontrol insects bird predation, 25, 50 Blair, Catherine P., 188, 237 Blepharida, 249, 250t, 329 Boggs, Carol L., 325 Bombus centralis, 221 Bombylius major, 221 Bossart, J. L., 11 Boughton, D. A., 316, 317 bounded hybrid superiority model, 62 Brachyderes rugatus rugatus, 157 Brassica spp., 168 B. rapa, 58, 59, 163 Brattsen, L. B., 46 Brower, L. P., 30 Bt cotton, resistance to, 268, 269, 271–74, 275 See also Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Buccalatrix thuberiella, 49 Buchnera aphidicola, 189 Bunias vulgaris, 284t Burdon, J. J., 283 Bursera, 249, 329 Bush, Guy L., 110, 111–12, 199, 234–35 sympatric speciation model of, 119, 136, 137, 139, 142, 143 (See also Rhagoletis) Butcher, Marie, 311 Cactoblastis cactorum, 325 Caillaud, M. C., 138 Calligrapha multipunctata bigsbyana...


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