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vii CONTENTS CONTRIBUTORS xi PREFACE xiii Kelley J. Tilmon PART I Evolution of Populations and Species 1 Chemical Mediation of Host-Plant Specialization: The Papilionid Paradigm 3 May R. Berenbaum and Paul P. Feeny How Lepidopterans Prefer 4 How Lepidopteran Larvae Perform 4 Preference-Performance Relationships in Lepidoptera 5 Chemical Mediation of Preference and Performance: Papilionids as Paradigm 6 Identifying the Chemical Cues: Kairomones and Allomones 8 Preference and Performance Genes 11 P450s and Host-Use Evolution 14 Conclusions 15 2 Evolution of Preference and Performance Relationships 20 Timothy P. Craig and Joanne K. Itami Limiting Constraints 21 Preference and Performance in Three Well-Studied Interactions 22 Alternative Hypotheses 26 Testing Hypotheses on Preference and Performance 27 Conclusion 27 3 Evolutionary Ecology of Polyphagy 29 Michael S. Singer General Explanations for Host Specificity 30 What about Polyphagy? 31 Trade-offs as Explanations for Host-Plant Use 32 Testing Theory with Polyphagous Woolly Bear Caterpillars 34 Conclusions 39 4 Phenotypic Plasticity 43 Kailen A. Mooney and Anurag A. Agrawal Adaptive Value and Costs of Phenotypic Plasticity 43 The Consequences of Phenotypic Plasticity 48 Future Directions 51 5 Selection and Genetic Architecture of Plant Resistance 58 Mary Ellen Czesak, Robert S. Fritz, and Cris Hochwender Selection on Resistance within Populations 58 Genetic Architecture of Resistance Traits between Populations and Species 61 Architecture of Resistance in a Willow Hybrid System 62 Summary 66 6 Introgression and Parapatric Speciation in a Hybrid Zone 69 J. Mark Scriber, Gabe J. Ording, and Rodrigo J. Mercader Hybrid Zones, “Evolutionary Novelties,” and Isolation 69 Climate Warming, Thermal Constraints, and Voltinism 70 The Tiger Swallowtail Butterflies 70 Hybrid Papilio Populations and Species 75 The Nuts and Bolts 78 viii CONTENTS Molecular Work 82 Future Efforts 82 Summary 83 7 Host Shifts, the Evolution of Communication, and Speciation in the Enchenopa binotata Species Complex of Treehoppers 88 Reginald B. Cocroft, Rafael L. Rodríguez, and Randy E. Hunt Ecological Isolation in the E. binotata Complex 89 Behavioral Sources of Assortative Mating 90 Communication in a New Host Environment 93 Summary 97 8 Host Fruit-Odor Discrimination and Sympatric Host-Race Formation 101 Jeffrey L. Feder and Andrew A. Forbes The Adaptive Zone Hypothesis 102 Ecological Adaptation, Host-Specific Mating, and Reproductive Isolation 102 Tom Wood and Ron Prokopy: Two Pioneers in the Study of Insect Behavior and Diversity 103 Natural and Life History of Rhagoletis pomonella 103 Behavioral Testing Using Synthetic Fruit Volatile Blends 104 Genetic Analysis of Fruit-Odor Discrimination 107 Physiological Basis for Fruit-Odor Discrimination 108 A Genetic Model for Fruit-Odor Discrimination 109 Theoretical Significance of the Fruit-Odor Discrimination Studies 110 Future Directions and Conclusions 112 Appendix: The Four-Component Genetic Model for Fruit-Odor Discrimination 112 9 Comparative Analyses of Ecological Speciation 117 Daniel J. Funk and Patrik Nosil Ecological Speciation 117 Herbivorous Insect Exemplars 118 Comparative Approaches and Ecological Speciation 120 Herbivore Analyses and Insights 122 Comparative Caveats 129 Opportunities and Directions 131 10 Sympatric Speciation: Norm or Exception? 136 Douglas J. Futuyma Theory 137 Biological Considerations 138 Evidence on Sympatric Speciation 141 The Allopatric Alternative 143 Conclusions 144 PART II Co- and Macroevolutionary Radiation 11 Host-Plant Use, Diversification, and Coevolution: Insights from Remote Oceanic Islands 151 George K. Roderick and Diana M. Percy Islands as a Model System 151 Lessons from Island Systems 152 Conclusions 158 12 Selection by Pollinators and Herbivores on Attraction and Defense 162 Lynn S. Adler Selection by Pollinators on Plant Resistance 163 Selection by Herbivores on Floral Traits 164 Resistance and Attractions Traits May Not Be Independent 165 Herbivores and Pollinators May Not Be Independent 166 Abiotic Factors and Geographic Variation 167 Future Directions 167 13 Adaptive Radiation: Phylogenetic Constraints and Ecological Consequences 174 Peter W. Price The Phylogenetic Constraints Hypothesis 175 Adaptive Capture and Escape 176 The Adaptive Radiation of Common Sawflies 177 Convergence of Constraints 177 Divergent Constraints 179 The Similarities of Temperate and Tropical Insect Herbivores 180 Adaptive Radiation in Temperate and Tropical Environments 183 14 Sequential Radiation through Host-Race Formation: Herbivore Diversity Leads to Diversity in Natural Enemies 188 Warren G. Abrahamson and Catherine P. Blair Species Cause Species: Sympatric Speciation through Host-Race Formation 188 Sequential Radiation 189 Conditions for Host-Race Formation 189 Cases of Sequential Radiation via Host-Race Formation 190 Example Showing No Differentiation 196 Conclusions 197 Sympatric Speciation Studies 199 15 The Oscillation Hypothesis of Host-Plant Range and Speciation 203 Niklas Janz and Sören Nylin The Oscillation Hypothesis 204 Colonizations and Host-Range...