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A N E W C O V E N A N T, N O T A N E W G O D c h a p t e r 11 And I answered him, “Trypho, there never will be, nor has there ever been from eternity, any other God except him who created and formed this universe. Furthermore, we do not claim that our God is different from yours, for he is the God who, with a strong hand and outstretched arm, led your forefathers out of the land of Egypt.1 Nor have we placed our trust in any other (for, indeed, there is no other), but only in him whom you also have trusted, the God of Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob. But, our hope is not through Moses or through the Law, otherwise our customs would be the same as yours. 2. “Now indeed, for I have read, Trypho, that there should be a definitive law and a covenant more binding than all others, which now must be respected by all those who aspire to the heritage of God. The law promulgated at Horeb is already obsolete , and was intended for you Jews only, whereas the law of which I speak is simply for all men. Now a later law in opposition to an older law abrogates the older; so, too, does a later covenant void an earlier one. An everlasting and final law, Christ himself, and a trustworthy covenant has been given to us, after which there shall be no law, or commandment, or precept . 3. “Have you not read these words of Isaiah: Hear me, listen to me, my people; and give ear to me, you kings: for a law shall go forth from me, and my judgment shall be a light to the nations. My justice 20 1. Dt 5.15. approaches swiftly, and my salvation shall go forth, and nations shall have hope in my arm?2 And concerning this new covenant, God spoke through Jeremiah thus: Behold the days shall come, said the Lord, and I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: it will not be like the covenant which I made with their fathers, in the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt.3 4. “If, therefore, God predicted that he would make a new covenant, and this for a light to the nations, and we see and are convinced that, through the name of the crucified Jesus Christ, men have turned to God, leaving behind them idolatry and other sinful practices, and have kept the faith and have practiced piety even unto death, then everyone can clearly see from these deeds and the accompanying powerful miracles that he is indeed the New Law, the new covenant, and the expectation of those who, from every nation, have awaited the blessings of God. 5. “We have been led to God through this crucified Christ, and we are the true spiritual Israel, and the descendants of Judah , Jacob, Isaac, and Abraham, who, though uncircumcised, was approved and blessed by God because of his faith and was called the father of many nations.4 All this shall be proved as we proceed with our discussion.” c h a p t e r 12 I cited this and added that Isaiah also proclaimed it in other words: Hear my words, and your soul shall live, and I will make an everlasting covenant with you, the assured mercies of David. Behold, I have given him for a witness to the people.l.l.l. Behold, nations who do not know you shall call upon you, and peoples that knew you not shall run to you, because of the Lord your God, and for the Holy One of Israel , for he has glorified you.5 A new covenant, not a new God 21 2. Is 51.4–5. See Skarsaune, 358. 3. Jer 31.31–32. See J. Daniélou, The Theology of Jewish Christianity, trans. J. A. Baker (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1964), 164–66; Skarsaune, 228–29, 329. See also Dial. 11; 24.1; 43.1; 51.3; 118.3; 122.5. 4. See Rom 4.9–10; R. Werline, “The Transformation of Pauline Arguments in Justin Martyr’s Dialogue,” HThR 92.1 (1998): 79–93. 5. Is 55.3–5 (non-LXX). See Skarsaune, 63–64, 187, 449. 2. “This very...


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