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Index abuse, 64, 104, 115, 121, 150–51; sexual, 93 adaptability, 50 advertisements: Able Minds, Able Hands to Foreign Lands (brochure), xi; colonial histories invoked in, 63; Filipino Nurses Caring for the World (brochure), 62; Filipino Workers Moving the World Today (brochure), 50, 51; Managing Labor Migration (brochure), 77 advertising strategies, 65 Aguilar, Filomeno, 85 Africa: as a destination for migrants, 20; POEA Marketing Branch regional desk for, 24 ambassadors of goodwill, 78 American colonialism, ix, xxv, 9; “benevolent assimilation” under, ix, 5; and Philippine educational system, ix anti-Asian violence in the U.S., 4 Aquino, Corazon, 14–15, 152 Asia: International Labor Affairs offices in, 25; immigration restrictions in, 31, 43; labor attaché in, 24; labor market prospects of migrants to, 58; migrants bound for employment in, 163; newly industrialized countries in, 56; migration to, 20; Philippines as failed state of, xix; small and medium enterprises in, 56 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), 88, 146, 153 Asian Americans, 52 Asian crisis, 72 Asian migration to the U.S., 3 Asian workers’ activism in the U.S., 4 Association of South East Asian States (ASEAN), 66–69, 146–48 authorization: migration bureaucracy and processes of, 21–22, 41–48, 53; and relations of trust between states, 22; state power of, 21–22, 142 Bagong Alyansang Makabayan (BAYAN), 152, 153 bagong bayani (new heroes), 84–85 balikbayan (nation returnee), 80–81, 159 Ball, Rochelle, 30 Bangladesh, 76, 123–26 bilateralism, 67, 122 bilateral labor agreements (BLA) 65–69, 72–74, 109, 118, 120, 122, 140 Bourdieu, Pierre, 21 brochures, xi, 50–53, 61, 65. See also advertisements Brooks, Ethel, 62, 63 Brown, Wendy, 104 Brunei, 55, 149; activism of migrants in, 124–25, 131–39, 149; employment in, 54, 116–19, 139; Labor Department , 127–28; labor recruitment agencies to, 132; Philippine diplomatic relations with, 120, 127–9, 131, 140 Bureau of Employment Services (BES), 12 185 186 Index bureaucracy, xxvii, 22, 41; contract certification through the, 121; documentary processing through, 22–23, 39–42; ethnographic research of, xv; labor-sending states’, 22; migrants’ grievances against the, 120; and migrants’ mobility, 53, 54, 142, 145; the migration, xxvi, 20, 23, 48, 139, 142, 144–45, 161–62, 164; rationalization of, 41; and the regulation of overseas employment, 116; spatial organization of, 39–40; training through the migration, 63 bureaucratic fees, 142; labor recruitment agencies payment of, 125 bureaucratic parlance, 88 bureaucratic practices, xxvii, 80, 161 bureaucratic processes, 67 bureaucratic processing, 40–41, 49, 119, 142 bureaucrats, xxvi, xxvii, 59, 68, 105, 145, 162, 164 Canada: authorization from countries like 45; caregiver training program to 7; immigration to 29; International Labor Affairs Service in 25; Live-In Caregiver Program (LCP) in 29; as a market for Philippine labor 55; marketing mission to 60; Migrante International in 153; migration to 19; Philippine embassy in 26; POEA hosted delegation from 60 capitalist scripts, 52 care, 61 care practitioners, 28 care work 95, 151 caregiver program, 38, 64 caregivers, xii, 7, 19, 36, 38, 44, 58, 95 caregiving courses, 35, 38, 44, 64 caregiving profession, 31 careworkers, 66 Catholicism, 111, 112 Chang, Kimberley, 37 Christianity, 112 citizenship xv, xxviii, xix–xxi, xxiv–xxv, xxvii, 46, 76, 78, 80, 88, 92; migrant xix–xxi, xxvi–xxvii, 79, 87, 96, 109, 115, 117, 120, 131, 139, 142–43; as a modality of governmentality xviii; responsibilities of, 80 class, xxv; relations in the Philippines, 11, 14 class-based identities, 155 classed anxieties, 102 Clinton, Bill, 28, 29, 153 Code of Discipline, 84, 86 Commission on Filipinos Overseas (CFO), 89; LINKAPIL, 89 commodification of migrants, x, xiv, 27, 41, 139 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), 30, 67 competitiveness, discourse of, 111, 112 comprador-bureaucratic capitalism, xvii construction work, 31, 50, 58–59, 81, 91 consumerism, 112 Contemplacion, Flor, 27, 93, 95, 103, 115, 117, 149 contracts: between Philippine state and government employers, 71; contestations over, 116, 122, 124, 127–28, 130, 132; Philippine state’s extraterritorial intervention in, xx; processing of migrants, 39, 41, 121; provisions in migrants, 82, 84, 85, 109, 111, 120; violations of migrants, 116, 119, 130–33 contractualization, 15, 45 countergeography of globalization, xv Cruikshank, Barbara, 108, 109 culture: as a distinction of Philippine labor, 64; as a justification of labor exploitation, 64; of migration, 5; notions of defective Philippine, 113 Index 187 currency: devaluation of Philippine, xviii; reserves of the Philippines, 60 debt: migrant, 35, 41–42, 125; migrant support to national, xxvi; Philippine national, xxvii...

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