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Note on Sources While no other scholarly books devote broad attention to Ameri­ can college singing, there are many sources that shed light on vari­ ous elements of the subject . Samuel Eliot Morison’s Harvard College in the Seventeenth Century (1936) and The Intellectual Life of Colonial New England (1980, reprint of 1956 edition) describe the founding of Harvard and student customs in the latter half of the seventeenth century. Percy Scholes’s The Puritans and Music in England and New England : A Contribution to the Cultural History of Two Nations (1934) offers insight into religion and song during the colonial period. The Diary of Samuel Sewall, 1674–­ 1729 provides firsthand accounts of alumni gatherings, commencements, and the singing of psalms during the early days of Harvard. The two-­ volume collection Music in Colonial Massachusetts, 1630–1820 (1985), edited by Barbara Lambert, includes a wealth of detail on singing and music during colonial times with many photographs and illustrations. The book provides a number of relevant chapters by vari­ ous authors on a wide range of topics , in­ clud­ ing religious music, patriotic music, broadside ballads, social music, dancing, and mu­ si­ cal instruments. Bruce Colin Daniels’s chapter “Music and Theater Struggle for Legitimacy” in Puritans at Play (1995) gives a comprehensive summary of the influences on music during the colonial period. Original documents of odes and orations from the eighteenth century highlight the function of songs at formal college celebrations. Brooks Mather Kelley’s Yale: A History (1974) and Edwin Oviatt’s The Beginnings of Yale, 1701–­1726 give vari­ous details on the early history of Yale. Kelley’s work and Charles E. Cuningham’s Timothy Dwight, 1752–­ 1817 provide substantial information about President Dwight. Early Ameri­can broadsides and newspaper records also offer valuable details 260 Note on Sources on the instances of music and college ceremonies. Some rich sources of information make his­ tori­ cal research into that era much more accessible. The Early Ameri­ can Imprints, Series I: Evans, 1639–­ 1800; Early Ameri­ can Imprints, Series II: Shaw-­Shoemaker, 1801–­1819; and Early Ameri­ can Newspapers, 1690–­ 1876 are available online and provide instant access to scans of origi­nal documents. The Making of America digital library, a collaboration between the University of Michigan and Cornell University, provides text-­ searchable scanned images of origi­ nal books, journals, and monographs produced between 1840 and 1900. Both the Making of America and the Early Ameri­can collections give researchers a valuable set of tools for examining the rich details of America’s past.1 Henry Sheldon covers details of student life and the impact of student societies in his Student Life and Customs (1901).2 Robert Knox Risk gives an interesting outsider’s view of Ameri­ can college singing in his America at College as Seen by a Scots Graduate (1908). Thomas Harding gives a comprehensive overview of college literary societies in the nineteenth century in his College Literary Societies: Their Contribution to Higher Education in the United States, 1815–­ 1876 (1971), in­ clud­ ing references to song. Benjamin Homer Hall’s A Collection of College Words and Customs (1856) and George R. Cutting’s Student Life at Amherst College: Its Organizations , Their Membership and History (1871) highlight numerous instances of student life and singing. Writings by Mason Hammond and sketches in F. O. Vaille and Henry Alden Clark’s Harvard Book (1875) lend material about singing at Harvard. Four Years at Yale (1871), by Lyman Bagg, provides a unique look at Yale student customs and respective groups, in­ clud­ ing many references to college singing. Yale College (1879), the two-­volume work edited by William Kingsley , provides numerous anecdotal recollections of singing and student activities as described by vari­ ous authors. A number of other works, in­ clud­ ing Frederick Rudolph’s Mark Hopkins and the Log, Williams College, 1836–­ 1872 (1956) and William Howitt’s The Student-­ Life of Germany (1842), describe instances of singing in college life. Songs of Yale (1853), by N. W. Taylor Root and James K. Lombard, serves as the first Ameri­ can college offering of student songs. Charles Wistar Stevens’s College Song Book (1860) is the first collection of college songs compiling tunes from a variety of colleges. Songs of Yale also made a significant impact on Hall’s A Collection of College Words and Customs (1851 and 1856). The 1856 revision includes numerous references to the Songs of Yale. Additionally, Stevens intended College Song Book as a...


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