Contents
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vii Contents Preface to the Third Edition  xvii Preface to the Second Edition  xix Preface to the First Edition  xxi Symbols and Abbreviations  xxiii Part 1. Loads and Reactions  1 1.01. The 4 Ks  1 1.02. Knowing the Rigging System  2 A. Load and Force  2 B. Static Equilibrium  2 1.03. Supporting a Load  3 A. The Engineer and the Rigger  3 B. Seat-of-the-Pants Experience  4 C. Free-Body Diagram (FBD)  4 D. Summation of Forces  5 E. Moment of Force  7 F. Examples  9 G. Continuous Beams  12 1.04. Summation of Forces  13 A. Resultant Force  13 B. The Law of Sines  14 C. Table of Multipliers for Resultant Forces  15 D. Vectors  16 1.05. Bridle Analysis  17 A. Bridle-Length Calculation  18 B. Vertical and Horizontal Forces  19 C. Bridle Tension  21 D. Vector Analysis  22 viii E. Hanging Points of Different Heights  23 F. Ratio of Horizontal to Vertical Distance  26 G. Allowable Loads  28 H. The Effect of Bridles on Hanging Points  28 1.06. Strength of Materials  29 A. Types of Applied Forces  30 B. Stress, Strain, and Hooke’s Law  31 C. Yield Point and Elasticity  32 D. Breaking Point  33 E. Allowable Deflection  34 F. Torsion  35 G. Unpredictable Forces  35 H. Design Factor of Components  38 I. Determining the Design Factor  38 Part 2. Block-and-Tackle Rigging  42 2.01. Introduction  42 2.02. Anatomy of a Block-and-Tackle System  43 A. Wooden Blocks  44 B. Metal Blocks  44 C. Other Types of Blocks  45 2.03. Load Distribution on a Block  45 A. Static Load  45 B. Dynamic Load  47 2.04. Mechanical Advantage  49 A. Apparent Mechanical Advantage  49 B. Actual Mechanical Advantage  49 C. Calculating Lead-Line Pull  52 D. Mechanical Advantage of Common Systems  55 E. Calculating the Total Load on the System  57 F. Rope and Sheave Wear  57 G. Mechanical Advantage of Complex Systems  58 2.05. Lacing and Reeving of Blocks  59 ix 2.06. Inspecting a Block-and-Tackle System  61 2.07. Using a Block-and-Tackle System  62 A. User’s Checklist  62 B. Attaching  62 C. Operating  63 D. Storing  63 Part 3. Hemp Rigging  65 3.01. Introduction  65 3.02. The Hemp Systems  65 A. Single-Line System  65 B. Multiple-Line System  66 C. Sandbag and Arbor Attachment as Counterweight  68 3.03. The Rope  69 A. Considerations of Rigging Rope  69 B. Types of Natural-Fiber Rope  70 C. Synthetic-Fiber Rope  71 D. Tensile Strength or Breaking Strength  73 E. Strength and Allowable Working Load of Rope  73 F. Effects of Knotting  75 G. Care of Rope  75 H. Indications of Wear  79 I. Testing a Rope  80 J. Bo’sun’s Chair  81 K. Selecting the Right Rope for the Job  81 3.04. Blocks  82 A. Hemp-Rigging Blocks  82 B. Loads  85 C. Head Blocks  86 D. Loft Blocks  88 E. Spot Blocks  88 F. Mule Blocks  88 G. Idler Pulleys  88  H. Sag Bars  88 I. Snatch Blocks  88 3.05. Pin Rail  92 A. Fixed-Pin Rail  92 B. Loose-Pin Rail  92 C. Single-Pin Rail  92 D. Double-Pin Rail  92 E. Pins  92 F. Tying Off  94 3.06. Sandbags and Arbors  97 A. Attaching Sandbags and Arbors with a Sunday  99 B. Attaching Sandbags and Arbors with a Trim Clamp  100 3.07. Jack Line  101 3.08. Spot-Line Rigging  101 A. Positioning Loft Blocks  101 B. Positioning Head Blocks  102 C. Fleet Angle  102 D. Aligning Blocks  103 E. Running Rope  104 F. Attaching Weight to Rope  104 3.09. Operation of Hemp Rigging  104 A. Safety Inspection of All Components  104 B. Untying a Line Set  106 C. Attaching Loads  106 D. Removing Loads  107 E. Trim Marks  107 F. Lashing with Small Tie Line  108 G. Retrimming  109 H. Coiling and Dressing  109 I. Showtime Operation  110 3.10. Operation Summary  110 3.11. Historical Summary  110 xi Part 4. Counterweight Rigging  112 4.01. Introduction  112 4.02. Single-Purchase Counterweight System  113 4.03. Double-Purchase Counterweight System  114 4.04. Miscellaneous Hardware  115 4.05. Wire Rope  116 A. Properties of Wire Rope for Stage Rigging  116 B. Construction of Wire Rope  119 C. Grades of Wire Rope  120 D. Attaching to Batten and Arbor  124 E. Indications of Wear  130 4.06. Blocks  132 A. Material  132 B. Sizing...