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1170 s4s4s4s4s4 c h a p t e r 2 4a What Makes Democratic Armies Weaker Than Other Armies While Beginning a Military Campaign and More Formidable When the War Is Prolonged b a. 1. A democratic army is more unsuited than another to war after a long peace. 1. Because all the officers in all the ranks are old there. 2. Because they have allowed themselves to be penetrated by the malaise of the national mores. 3. Because they have fallen morally below the level of the people. 2. A democratic army is more formidable than another after a long war. 1. Because, since competition is immense and since the war pushes each man forcibly into his place, you always end by discovering great men of war. 2. Because war, having destroyed all the peaceful industries, becomes the sole industry , so that toward it alone are turned all the ambitious and restless desires that arise from equality. Of military discipline in democratic armies (YTC, CVf, pp. 50–51). Former titles of the chapter in the manuscript: “⫽why a democratic people risks more than another to be conquered during the first military campaigns .⫽/ “why the chances for a democratic army increase as the war continues ./ “effects produced by a long peace and a long war on a democratic army.” b. The soldier./ Modification of the soldier in democracies./ Military discipline. Relationship of the soldier and of the officer. Driving force of actions./ Reaction of this on the sentiment of honor. An aristocratic body of officers formulates arbitrary laws of honor./ [Note, which seems later] Of honor in general in American society. That a democratic society can have virtue, but not what we call honor. Honor is an arbitrary democratic armies on military campaign 1171 Every army that begins a military campaign after a long peace risks being defeated; every army that has waged war for a long time has great chances to win: this truth is particularly applicable to democratic armies. In aristocracies, the military life, being a privileged career, is honored even in times of peace. Men who have great talents, great enlightenment and a great ambition embrace it; the army is, in everything, at the level of the nation; often it even surpasses it. We have seen how, on the contrary, among democratic peoples, the elite of the nation moves little by little away from the military career in order to seek, by other roads, consideration, power and above all wealth. After a long peace, and in democratic times periods of peace are long, the army is always inferior to the country itself. War finds it in this state;c and until war has changed it, there is a danger for the country and for the army. I showed how, in democratic armies and in times of peace, the right of seniority is the supreme and inflexible law for advancement. That follows law, a convention that needs to be minutely detailed and interpreted by a body of arbiters. [In the margin: Honor is an aristocratic conventionrelativetothemannerinwhich you must envisage human actions./ What I have to say about honor seems to me too important to be said in relation to other things.] Precede this with an oratorical turn. If I am understood, I am assured of not hurting anyone. But I am afraid of not being able to make myself easily understood (Rubish, 2). c. In the manuscript: [In the margin] ⫽To delete I think because it is not necessary there and is necessary further along. French of the XIXth century.⫽ 1172 democratic armies on military campaign not only, as I said, from the constitution of these armies, but also from the very constitution of the people, and will always be found. Moreover, since among these peoples the officer is something in the country only because of his military position, and since he draws all his consideration and all his comfort from it, he only withdraws or is excluded from the army at the very end of life. The result of these two causes is that when, after a long peace, a democratic people finally takes up arms, all the leaders of its army are found to be old men. I am not speaking only about the generals, but about the subordinate officers, most of whom have remained immobile, or have been able to move only step by step. If you consider a democratic army after a long peace, you see with surprise that all the soldiers are not...


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