Appendix I
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The majority of the impressions and fragments found at Tikal and analyzed here are constructed in a simple over one, under one weave known as plain cloth or tabby (Fig. B: 153e3, 154c, f, 155a-e; Emery 1966: Fig. 85). In two of the plain weave impressions, paired threads are indicated in one system (either warps or wefts) (Fig. B: 155f). There is one impression which has a section of gauze or, possibly, weft-wrap open work between sections of plain weave (Fig. B: 154d, upper right, 154e), and one impression is of a complicated twill weave (Fig. B: 156a, b). Definitions are given below. Since all woven fabrics require a system of threads (i.e., warp threads) in tension, it is assumed that some form of loom was used to produce these specimens. However, to date, no archaeological evidence has been identified that would indicate the nature of the loom. The finely spun fibers of the cloth fragments are probably cotton, as suggested by Dr. Junius B. Bird. The thread diameter in both impressions and fragments measures from less than 0.5 to slightly over 1.0 mm. Finely constructed plain weaves and twill weaves create strong fabrics ideal for clothing or other heavy usage, while weaves of open construction are more decorative and less durable. The plain weaves in the collection included both open and fine examples, with spaces between threads ranging from none to about 1.5 mm. The twill specimen is very finely constructed. The plain weave specimens are carefully and evenly woven and the presence of the more complicated techniques, particularly the twill, indicates skill in the textile art, as well as an interest in structural design, i.e., design which is a result of the technique, and not surface or imposed design. Contemporary Guatemalan textiles utilize such plain weave—both over one, under one weave and paired wefts and warps, often as a background for complicated brocade designs; and gauze. Twill cloth is known ethnologically from both Guatemala and Mexico, and archaeologically from Mexico. In this report warp refers to the threads in tension. Weft refers to the threads passing over and under the warp to create the fabric. In a gauze weave, each alternate warp thread crosses the adjacent warp thread and is locked in place by the passage of a weft thread and then returned to its original position, creating a lacelike fabric (Emery 1966: 181-186). This may also be done with two or more warp threads. Weft-wrap open work is where a special weft thread is introduced into the fabric and wrapped around warp and weft threads to produce small openings in the fabric. This technique is used to produce open work designs in plain weave cloth (Emery 1966: 84-85; Kent 1957: 501-507). In twill cloth a diagonal ribbed effect is achieved by passing the weft thread over one, under two (or more) warp threads (Emery 1966: 92). A diamond twill is where the ribbing creates a diamond-shaped pattern (Emery 1966: 105). Knotted netting is a single thread fabric of open mesh construction produced by knotting the thread into the loop above (Emery 1966: 217). Impressions, Including Latex Molds, Listed by Catalogue and Lot Numbers 12B-4/1 Pottery censer fragment. Plain weave impression. Appendix I Analysis of Textile Impressions and Cloth Fragments from Tikal Dorothy Cavalier Yanik [April 1965, revised March 1993] APPENDIX I 103 Open construction with spaces of up to about 1.5 mm between threads. Count: 7.5–7 threads to the linear centimeter (19–17 threads to the inch). Thread diameter : less than 1.0 mm both warp and weft. 12B-176d/22 Pottery censer fragment. Plain weave impression of very fine threads and fine construction. Paired threads used in one system. Accurate thread count cannot be made. Thread diameter: less than 0.5 mm both warp and weft. 12B-178a/12 Pottery censer fragment. Plain weave impression. Very fine construction. Count: 15–13 threads to the cm (37–32 threads to the inch). Thread diameter: less than 0.5 mm both warp and weft. 12B/9 Pottery censer fragment. Plain weave impression . Finely constructed with paired threads in one system . Count: 20 threads to the cm for paired threads and 10 threads to the cm for single threads (50–25 threads to the inch). Count based on 5.0 mm and computed. Thread diameter: about 0.5 mm both warp and weft (Fig. B: 155f). 12B/22 Pottery censer fragment...


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