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Appendix 1 Some Critical Dates in the History of Modern India and the Activism of Sunderlal Bahuguna 1869 Birth of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in Porbandar, in Western India. 1889 Richard St. Barbe Baker is born in Hampshire, England. 1892 Mira Behn (Madeline Slade) is born in London. 1895 Birth of Vinoba Bhave in Gagode Maharashtra. 1901 Sarala Behn (Catherine Mary Heilemann) is born in London. 1916 Birth of Sri Dev Suman. 1920 Richard St. Barbe Baker’s first assignment as forester in Kenya. 1921 Vinoba Bhave arrives in Wardha. 1922 Richard St. Barbe Baker establishes Men of Trees organization in Kenya. 1925 Mira Behn arrives in India. 1927 Birth of Sunderlal Bahuguna in Marora Village in Tehri Garhwal. 1930 Massacre of Forest Protesters at Tilari on May 30. 1932 Vimla Nautiyal is born in Malideval Village in Tehri Garhwal. 1932 Sarala Behn arrives in Udaipur, Rajasthan. 1935 Sarala Behn travels to Wardha and meets Gandhi. 227 228 Appendix 1 1940 First meeting of Sunderlal Bahuguna with Sri Dev Suman. 1944 Martyrdom of Sri Dev Suman, Sunderlal Bahuguna jailed for five months in Narendranagar. 1945 Sunderlal Bahuguna goes underground and remains in Sikhanwala for one year. 1947 India achieves national independence. 1947 Sunderlal Bahuguna returns to Garhwal from Sikhanwala, undertakes his first experiment in satyagraha at the entrance to the town of Tehri. 1948 Gandhi is assassinated at Birla house in New Delhi. Sunderlal Bahuguna is elected general secretary of the Praja Mandal (citizen’s forum) in Tehri. Sarala Behn opens Lakshmi Ashram in Kausani. 1949 Tehri Garhwal is assimilated into the new Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Vimla Nautiyal is admitted as a student to Lakshmi Ashram in Kausani. Geological Survey of India identifies the Bhagirathi Gorge at Tehri as a possible dam site. 1950 Establishment of Thakkar Bapa Chattravas or Thakkar Bapa Hostel. 1951 Vinoba Bhave initiates Land Gift Movement (Bhoodan). At age twenty, on leave from the Lakshmi Ashram, Vimla Nautiyal participates in the movement. 1954 First meeting of Sunderlal Bahuguna and Vimla Nautiyal. 1956 Marriage of Sunderlal Bahuguna and Vimla Nautiyal and the establishment of the Parvatiya Navjeevan Ashram, the ashram for new life in the hills. 1964 Chandi Prasad Bhatt organizes Dashauli Gram Swarajya Sangh. 1968 Villagers around Tilari renew their pledge to protect their forests even at the cost of their lives. Indu Tikekar settles in Ujeli Ashram, on the banks of the Bhagirathi River in Uttarkashi. 1970 Devastating flood occurs in Alakananda Valley. 1972 Mass demonstration concerning discrimination against local forest industries in Uttarkashi and Gopeshwar. Planning commission approves of Tehri Dam. 229 Appendix 1 1973 Conflict of chipko activists with Symonds Company. Chipko Movement receives media attention. Chipko protest takes place in Mandal forest. Publication of Small Is Beautiful by E. F. Schumacher. 1977 First meeting of Sunderlal Bahuguna with Richard St. Barbe Baker. Bahuguna undertakes fast at Narendranagar. Protest in Advani Forest: hundreds of women vow to protect the trees if necessary at the cost of their lives. 1978 At Gaumukh, where the Bhagirathi River has its source in the Gangotri Glacier, Sunderlal Bahuguna takes a pledge to devote himself to the protection of the Himalayan environment in all its aspects. Construction of Tehri Dam begins under police guard. 1979 Bahuguna undertakes fast at Badiyargad concerning tree felling. 1980 Environmental Appraisal Committee is appointed by Indian government. 1981 Sunderlal Bahuguna and Rattan Dehloo begin foot march from Srinagar in Kashmir to Kohima in Nagaland on May 30. Bahuguna refuses Padma Shree Award. Moratorium on felling of green trees for commercial purposes in Uttar Pradesh above the elevation of one thousand meters. 1982 Death of Mira Behn, Vinoba Bhave, and Richard St. Barbe Baker. 1983 Sunderlal Bahuguna and others complete the journey from Srinagar in Kashmir to Kohima in Nagaland February 1. 1984 Bahuguna is recipient of the Singhvi National Integration Award for his work with the Chipko Movement as the best expression of India’s culture. 1985 Bahuguna is given the Man of the Trees Award by Friends of Trees, Bombay. 1987 With Indu Tikekar, Bahuguna is recipient, on behalf of the Chipko Movement, of the Right Livelihood Award (also called the Alternative Nobel Prize). 1989 Bahuguna departs from the Silyara ashram to devote himself to the protest against the Tehri Dam, undertakes his first fast in connection with the Tehri Dam protest. 230 Appendix 1 1990 Environmental Appraisal Committee, under D. R. Bhumbha, rejects plans for the Tehri Dam. 1991 Bahuguna participates in a bicycle yatra from Ganga Sagar to Gangotri...


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