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NOTES Prologue 1. I coined the term “New Economic Man” to contrast “New Revolutionary Man.” 2. Yuqiong Zhou and Moy, “Parsing Framing Process.” 3. For detailed information about the new official policy on religion, see Potter, “Belief in Control.” 4. Qingjiang Yao, “China’s Official Framing of Religion.” 5. The religions permitted by the government include Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, and Christianity. For more details, see Potter, “Belief in Control.” 6. Chiung Hwang Chen, “Framing Falun Gong.” 7. Powers and Lee, “Dueling Media.” 8. Lu and Simons, “Traditional Rhetoric of Chinese Communist Party Leaders.” 9. Gaonkar, “The Idea of Rhetoric in the Rhetoric of Science,” 10. Campbell, “In Silence We Offend,” 143. 11. Rosteck, “A Cultural Tradition in Rhetorical Studies,” 229. 12. McKerrow, “Critical Rhetoric.” 13. Condit, “The Character of ‘History’ in Rhetoric and Cultural Studies.” 14. Ibid., 173–74. 15. Ibid., 174. 16. Ibid., 173. 17. Charland, “Constitutive Rhetoric.” 18. Ibid., 137. 19. Ibid., 139. 20. Ibid., 142. Chapter 1. The Rise of Falun Gong 1. In Falun Gong’s Challenge to China, Schechter estimates Falun Gong’s membership at 100 million and the membership of the Chinese Communist Party at only 56 million. Hence the number of Falun Gong practitioners would be nearly twice that of the Chinese Communist Party. The official government estimate of Falun Gong membership, however, is 2 million. In Falun Gong in the United States, Porter places the membership of Falun Gong in China at 7 million, noting, “With China’s total urban population in 1998 at 370 million, the claim of 70 million membership would give an impossible ratio of one Falun Gong follower to every five urban Chinese. On the other hand, the 2 million figures seem far too low. A range of 2 million to 10 million practitioners is a more likely figure” (120). 106 Notes to Pages 8–14 2. Luo, “Yinmo zhenya falun gong de neimu.” 3. Ownby, Falun Gong and the Future of China, 11. 4. Ownby, “A History for Falun Gong,” 235. 5. Nancy Chen, “Healing Sect and Anti-Cult Campaigns,” 517. 6. Ownby, Falun Gong and the Future of China, 88, 167. 7. Zan, “Gaige zhong de ‘ruoshi qunti’ de chengyin tanxi,” 64. 8. Tian, “Lun dangdai shehui fenhua zhong de xinsheng ruoshi qunti,” 52. 9. Zan, “Gaige zhong de ‘ruoshi qunti’ de chengyin tanxi,” 64. 10. Tian, “Lun dangdai shehui fenhua zhong de xinsheng ruoshi qunti,” 52. 11. Ibid., 52. 12. Zan, “Gaige zhong de ‘ruoshi qunti’ de chengyin tanxi,” 64. 13. Ibid. 14. Hu Chengpeng, “Ruoshi qunti,” 51–52. 15. Tian, “Lun dangdai shehui fenhua zhong de xinsheng ruoshi qunti,” 52. 16. Bai, “Graduate Unemployment.” 17. “Huifu gaokao sanshinian.” 18. Bai, “Graduate Unemployment,” 139. 19. “Daxuesheng shiye.” 20. “Falii bixu zhansheng xiejiao.” Government sources expressing similar views are scarce, but the government’s unsympathetic attitude is best demonstrated by its failure to build a safety net. 21. Wang Sibin, “Ruoshi qunti shengcun zhuangkuang de gaishan yu shehui zhengce de tiaozheng.” 22. Wang Sibin, “Shehui zhuangxing zhong de ruoshi qunti.” 23. On October 23, 1985, Deng Xiaoping was interviewed by Mike Wallace for the American television program 60 Minutes. Deng told Wallace: “We permit some people and some regions to become prosperous first, for the purpose of achieving common prosperity faster.” Deng, “Shehui zhuyi he shichang jingji bu cunzai genben maodun.” 24. Wang Cailing, “Baohu ruoshi qunti,” 95. 25. Wang Sibin, “Ruoshi qunti shengcun zhuangkuang de gaishan yu shehui zhengce de tiaozheng.” 26. Ibid., 2. 27. Solinger, “Labor Market Reform,” 317. 28. Giles, Park, and Cai, “How Has Economic Restructuring Affected China’s Urban Workers?,” 79. 29. Ibid. 30. Ibid. 31. Chen Zhangping, ed., Fazhan de Chuangshang, 133. 32. Ibid., 132. 33. “Zhongguoren yali baogao.” 34. “Diaocha ‘laisheng shifou yuanzuo zhongguoren, wangzhan zhubian tuzao jiegu.” 35. Interview with an anonymous source in Beijing, December 15, 2009. 36. Adams and Hannum, “Children’s Social Welfare in China,” 98. 37. Xiaoyuan Shang, Xiaoming Wu, and Yue Wu, “Welfare Provision for Vulnerable Children.” Notes to Pages 14–24 107 38. Ibid. 39. Wang Youqun, “Guanyu falun gong de yifengxin,” 25. 40. Psychological Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Science, Falun Gong xianxiang de xinlixue fenxi, 67. 41. Ibid. 42. Conversation with Lisa Weaver, Pittsburgh, February 22, 2000. 43. Zhou Yousu, “Toushi yu shenjiu,” 107. 44. Ibid. 45. Ibid. 46. Nancy Chen, “Healing Sects and Anti-Cult Campaigns,” 506. 47. Zhou Yousu, “Toushi yu shenjiu,” 107. 48. “Falun gong jiushi xiejiao”; “Shehui de duliu”; “Huangdan de...


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